Phonological Process

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INTRODUCTION Phonological processes are variations in the way phonemes are combined. Study of bilingualism in children is important for our understanding of language development. There is adequate proof to suggest that the children acquiring a second language sequentially are increasing (Brice, 2002). Duchar & Clark (1992) stated that a Spanish-English bilingual child, who studied languages between the ages of 1.7 year & 2.3 years, developed separate voicing systems for two languages. Yavas (1995) studied the first 50 word period of his Portuguese/Turkish bilingual son. Furthermore, Campbell & Sais (1995) conducted a study on Italian-English bilingual children of preschool level which showed their competency was nearly equal in both the languages.…show more content…
 To contrast the obtained outcome with the reports of monolingual Kannada speaking children of similar age group. METHOD The subjects that participated in the study were ten typically developing Kannada- English speaking bilingual children in the age range of 3-3.6 & 3.6 to 4 years. Kannada was confirmed to be their mother tongue and first language (L1), while English was established to be the second language (L2). All subjects attended English Medium School for their pre-school education, but the language spoken at home was Kannada. Each and every one of them were exposed to English the entire time at school while interacting with their teachers and their peer group, along with regular exposure to English programs on Television. Spontaneous speech samples of ten minutes were collected in both the languages (L1 & L2). The tasks of General conversation, Story narration and Picture description were prearranged wherein the clinician made use of picture books and instructed the child to describe the occurences in the presented picture. Flash cards of lexical items were shown to the children wherein their task was to identify and articulate the target lexical items. Articulation tests, Kannada Articulation Test (Ratna & Bettagiri, 1972) & Goldmann Fristoe Articulation Test (English) [Goldman & Fristoe, 1986] were administered. Unstructured speech samples…show more content…
The most frequently occurring processes were fronting, cluster reduction, Epenthesis, initial consonant deletion, affrication, metathesis and final consonant deletion, whereas the slightest occurring processes were medial consonant deletion, backing of stops, alveolar assimilation, stopping & backing of fricatives, and vowel unrounding. The unique processes of medial consonant deletion, stopping and alveolar assimilation were established only in one subject. Additionally, the results of the current study were compared with earlier findings on Tulu-Kannada bilinguals (Mala, 2001) & Kannada monolingual speaking children (Sunil, 1995) of the similar age group. The statistical measure of one sample t-test was carried out and its outcome revealed that there was a significant difference noted in Kannada-English bilinguals and Tulu-Kannada bilinguals for fronting, cluster reduction, affrication, medial consonant deletion and epenthesis. On comparison of Kannada-English bilinguals and Kannada monolingual, considerable distinction was seen in fronting, cluster reduction and final consonant

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