Student Engagement In Learning

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According to Shulman, “Learning begins with student engagement, which in turn leads to knowledge and understanding” (2002: 38), and for Christensen (1991), to teach is to engage students in learning. The significance of the notion of engagement in a teaching/ learning context is also supported by a body of research that indicates that engagement is essential in promoting achievement ( Johnson, 2008; Shernoff &Schmidt, 2008), and that the likelihood of academic success is maximized through participation in educational processes that promote engagement (Christenson & al. 2001; Fredericks and al. 2003). Also, evidence suggests that the use of strategies for engaging students in learning correlates with a decrease in students’ misbehaviors in…show more content…
"the extent to which students are involved in experiences that involve actively constructing new knowledge and understanding" (Radloff & Coates, 2009:17), and with "instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing" (Google, 2013). Accordingly, learner engagement is in line with cognitive and constructivist theories that have always focused on putting students into situations that allow them to construct knowledge by themselves as they actively think, ‘dig’ , apply, transform into knowledge and skills, what they learn in the classroom working either individually or with other students. Bateson (1977) also rightly associates the idea of active learning with that of engagement when considering level 2 learning as the stage where the learner makes things happen invents, constructs viable and original responses to unique and complex…show more content…
Inter-structuring Learning through inter-structuring on the other hand, uses social variables (interactions) as an inherent part in the development of the learner. Interactions with peers and the environment are considered to allow the individual to acquire knowledge. The social reality, adults or other more experienced people, play a significant role in the construction of knowledge and in the development of the «tools for thinking» (Vygotsky 1978; Bruner, 1966). Basically, ‘’the secret of real learning lies in the nature of the social interaction between two or more people with different level of skill and knowledge. The role of the one with most knowledge, usually a parent or teacher, but often a peer, is to find ways of helping the other to learn’’ (Williams and Burden, 1997:40) There is therefore a shift from Piaget’s bipolar learner- object model to a "tripolar" subject (learner)- object- alter model where the learner enters into a construction and a co-construction relationship with others, and can benefit from effective socio-cognitive dynamics. Through interactions, he develops higher cognitive abilities (understanding, analyzing

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