River Pollution Case Study

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i.In 1940s and 50s, Japan faced mega-scale typhoons and extraordinarily intense rainfall in the rainy season after the World War II, and the country was swept by severe floods. Urban areas and rice fields were inundated and over 1,000 people died from destructive landslides in a year. People also had to face starvation from a severe food crisis. Even after the disastrous postwar period of floods, Japanese economy faced a serious water shortage problem emerged in rapidly urbanizing and industrializing regions. To fight off the flood and water shortage problems, the government focused on dam construction in 1960s and 70s. The projects involved river improvement in the main rivers across the nation. These projects greatly helped flood control.…show more content…
Although the river improvement projects considerably alleviated floods and helped with the water shortage problems, they also caused deterioration of environment and landscape since the latter half of the 1970s. A single purposed development had given no priority to a holistic and basin-wide approach. As the problems associated with such one dimensional solutions were realized, opposition campaigns to dam construction or large-scale river works became active since the 1980s. A typical example was the movement against the Nagara estuary barrage in the 1990s. iii.The 1990s witnessed a change in the mindset, and river administrators started to take into account conservation of the nat works, trying to utilize natural materials rather than concrete which had been widely used. In line with this movement, in 1997 the river administration revised the River Law. The revised act made it mandatory to preserve and conserve river environments, and encouraged local people's participation in river planning. These revisions were considered by the public as suitable as the concept of a modern society.…show more content…
When disasters occur, municipalities are the first responding administrative entity. When the scale is beyond their capacity, national and prefectural governments provide support. ◾Legal system, legal framework: Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act enacted in 1961. •The Central Disaster Management Council: Prime Minister as the chair and with membership of all Ministers of the Government. Heads of quasi-government organizations, such as Public Broadcasting, Bank of Japan, Japanese Red Cross and the Telecommunications Company as well as representatives of Academia. •The roles and responsibilities regarding disaster risk reduction were clearly defined for three layers of governments as well as community organizations and citizens. •Annual official report should be submitted to the National Diet regarding the disaster risk management status and allocations of budget. ◾Flood risk management 20: Further decrease the number casualties by typhoons and floods •The main actor is the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT), and in particular its River Bureau. The River Bureau is responsible for: planning related to river basins and coastal areas; preparedness against disasters caused by floods, storm surges and sediment slides; and the supply of drinking water and other water

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