Effects Of Water Pollution

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Water pollution is a large set of undesirable effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water that caused by human activities. This matter requires urgent attention, since water is scarce and such an important resource needs detailed scientific research all over the world in order to sustain and protect the water resource from pollution and for its wise utilization. However, no water in nature is absolutely clean. Even as it rains, the precipitation is interact with solid dissolved salts and aerosols in the air prior to reaching the ground, running on the surface and finally percolating…show more content…
The population of the city is 3,048,631 and living in 10 sub-cities and 99 kebeles divided for administrative purpose. It is center for modern economic and social activities because of the infrastructure services are found relatively in better situation than other cities of Ethiopia. In particular, the complete inadequacy of the solid waste management is major environmental problem in Addis Ababa. Waste is disposed off through informal means, except smaller percentage going to incineration, dumped on open sites, drainage channels, rivers and valleys as well as on the streets. The rivers that cross the city are widely used as disposal sites. The rapid population growth rate is also resulting in a rise urban waste generation. This implies that the current waste collection and disposal capacity of the city could not match with the growing population and generation of waste. Inadequate municipal and industrial solid waste collection and disposal creates a range of environmental problems in Addis…show more content…
There are six major industries and more than 100 small scale manufacturing industries in the city of Dire Dawa. These are Dire Dawa textile, Dire Dawa food complex, ELFORA meat processing, East Africa bottling (soft drink), and Dire Dawa Cement. The Dire Dawa textile factory is the main source of contaminant in the urban area. The chemicals used in this factory pollute the ground and surface water. There is no waste treatment and proper waste disposal system in Dire Dawa city. From the nature of its topography and soil, the ground water resource is very venerable to pollution. Water quality test from different sites of the city (bore holes) shows that nitrate concentration of water samples from Sabiyan and inner part of the town highly exceeds the WHO and Ethiopian Drinking Water Quality Guideline Values. There are numerous urban and rural agricultural activities such as Tony farm, chat farm, Amdael dairy farm, Hafecat dairy, and other small-scale cattle breeding and horticulture producers in the town. Generally, the agricultural inputs and by-products are the major constitutes of wastes and have a chance to contact the groundwater system. The groundwater quality is directly affected by microorganisms in organic fertilizers. The land disposal of municipal sewage is a potential nitrate source and landfills are sources of metals and variety of

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