Dire Dawa Water Pollution

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Water pollution is an immense set of unwanted effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater that caused by human activities. This matter requires urgent attention, since water is scarce. This important resource needs detailed scientific research all over the world in order to sustain and keep the water resource from pollution and for its wise utilization. However, no water in nature is absolutely clean. Even as it rains, the precipitation is interact with solid dissolved salts and aerosols in the air prior to reaching the ground, running on the surface and finally percolating through…show more content…
At present, almost 100% of the water supply for the urban and rural population of Dire Dawa administrative council gets its water supply for domestic, industrial, and irrigation purposes from boreholes, dug wells, and springs (WWDSE, 2002). The pollution of Dire Dawa groundwater system is a danger for the future sustainable domestic water supply of the city of Dire Dawa and Harar. The geomorphologic, geologic and hydro geologic characteristics of the basin facilitate the effect of pollution. The area is mostly covered by major geological complexes ranging from Precambrian rocks at higher elevations to the recent alluvial formation at the lower part of the basin (Seife, 1985) that can easily be penetrated by disposing…show more content…
There are six major industries and more than 100 small scale manufacturing industries in the city of Dire Dawa. These are Dire Dawa textile, Dire Dawa food complex, ELFORA meat processing, East Africa bottling (soft drink), and Dire Dawa Cement. The Dire Dawa textile factory is the main source of contaminant in the urban area. The chemicals used in this factory pollute the ground and surface water. There is no waste treatment and proper waste disposal system in Dire Dawa city. From the nature of its topography and soil, the ground water resource is very venerable to pollution. Water quality test from different sites of the city (bore holes) shows that nitrate concentration of water samples from Sabiyan and inner part of the town highly exceeds the WHO and Ethiopian Drinking Water Quality Guideline Values. There are numerous urban and rural agricultural activities such as Tony farm, chat farm, Amdael dairy farm, Hafecat dairy, and other small-scale cattle breeding and horticulture producers in the town. Generally, the agricultural inputs and by-products are the major constitutes of wastes and have a chance to contact the groundwater system. The groundwater quality is directly affected by microorganisms in organic fertilizers. The land disposal of municipal sewage is a potential nitrate source and landfills are sources of metals and variety of

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