Motivation Literature Review

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction The present chapter reviews the literature related to teachers' demotivation. The first section explains different kinds of motivation. In section two, motivational factors in L2 learning and teaching are discussed. The last section deals with demotivating factors in L2 learning and teaching which includes different matters regarding teachers' demotivation such as the migration, personality factors, working conditions , problems and salary of teachers. The last section deals with teachers' demotivation in Iran. 2.2 Literature Review There are extensive studies regarding students’ motivation. (Dornyei, 1990; Gardner, 1985; Oxford and Shearin,…show more content…
He stresses on the point that ‘what is crucially important is not whether motivational factors are intrinsic or extrinsic, but is whether they are internalized and self-determined or externally imposed and regulated by others.' (cited in Daskalovska et al., 2012, p. 1189) It seems that learners should mix extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in order to be successful. If one of these motivations is not realized in his course, he may fail in his exams and there might be unsatisfactory consequences. B. Global, Situational and Task Motivation Brown (2007) identifies three other kinds of motivation: Global motivation refers to the general goals of foreign language learners. Situational motivation refers to the situation in which learning occurs; and Task motivation refers to the learners' motivation while performing a particular task. (Cited in Daskalovska et al., 2012, p. 1189 - 1190) 2.2.2 Motivational Factors in L2 Learning and Teaching Students’ Motivational Factors Brown (1987: 114) described motivation as ‘an inner drive, impulse, emotion or desire that moves one to a particular action’ (cited in Daskalovska et al., 2012, p. 1187). Ur (1996, 280) listed different ways which help to motivate learners: ●Setting obvious task…show more content…
The first is "congeniality"; for example: a teacher serves tea for his colleagues during the break. A supervisor gives one of the teachers ride to home to take care of her baby sooner. He mentioned that the predisposition of congeniality is collegiality. Sharing instructional experiences, observing other colleagues while teachings, introducing valuable pedagogical books are some examples of collegiality. At last, Barth summarizes the significance of positive relationship by saying "When the alarm rings in the morning, the enthusiasm with which the educator jumps out of bed and prepares for school is directly related to school with whom he or she will interact that day."

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