Motivation In Tourism

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The literature review presented in this chapter will focus on tourist motivations and gender studies in tourism research. This is an exploratory study where the research is to investigate Malaysian women in Generation Y towards solo traveller. This chapter will provide relevant information of the consumer behaviour on decision making, an overview of the gender scholarship. In doing so, discussion of various theories and concepts of motivations and needs of the tourists and marketing tools as the concepts to apply in with tourist motivations theories. Thus, the present study adopts VALS theory, as an understanding of the target market segmentation, women solo traveller. The psychographic was observed and the research combined the values, personality…show more content…
Maslow’s (1954) hierarchical theory of needs emphasizes on the behaviour which is determined by the conscious and unconscious needs. The existence of the hierarchy originally proposed to understand personal growth and experiences to serve universal approach in motivations, which also explain the needs and motivations in travel. This theory is about human beings need to satisfy each of the levels. Apparently, this theory is widely used in the tourism context. The hierarchy is related to the travel industry in term of physiological, needs and demand (Fletcher et al, 2013). They are likely to make differences in travelling the world. Perhaps, one of the main reasons for the population is because of the simplicity of the theory (Hudson, 1999). Based on the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1954, 1970), development and applications for travel behaviour in tourism are mainly set up by needs which are self-actualization, esteem needs, love needs, safety needs and physiological needs. The idea in Maslow’s need hierarchy is when the basic needs are not satisfied, they will become dominant in an individual’s behaviour. Once the basic needs are fulfilled, the next level of needs will start motivate the individual. An alternative view of the need-based paradigm by Grunow Lutter (1983) mentioned that the real self is raised through the transformation in experiences. Hence, the underline mechanism for motivations can…show more content…
Both Dann (1981) and Crompton (1979) suggested the push and pull distinction in motivations. A significant contribution with two-tiered scheme of motivational factors: the ‘push’ and the ‘pull’ were structured. Goossens (2000) described push and pull factors of tourist behaviour as: “two sides of the same motivational coin”. He explained the psychological concepts, emotion are connected. It was pushed by their emotional needs and pulled by the emotional benefits of leisure. This theory has relationship between needs, benefits and motivations. It is widely used and accepted in tourism research as guiding tools (Baloglu & Uysal, 1996; Kim et al, 2003; Prayang & Ryan,

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