Inclusion And Inclusion In Education

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Inclusion The term inclusion came about during the discussion of education for children with disabilities (Itkonen, 2007). The definition of inclusion has been very flexible; different schools define it differently to fit its school’s profile (Ryndak, Jackson, & Billingsley, 2000). With the growing number of children with disabilities attending mainstream classes it is becoming very important to have a concrete definition for the inclusion programs in education. Ryndak, Jackson, and Billingsley (2000) conducted a study to understand and provide a clear definition for inclusion in the United States of America. They surveyed scholars and teachers in school settings and came to the conclusion that inclusion is an educational setting where students…show more content…
The inclusive education has been a topic of discussion for a large portion of the 20th century beginning in the 1960s (Foreman, 2005). The United Nations was a driving force in bringing importance this field of education by conducting several declarations over the decades (Khan, 2011). In 1990, the World Conference in Education for all was held in Thailand, this conference gave way to the concept of inclusive education at the Salamanca World conference on special needs education in Spain in 1994. At this conference inclusive education was described as a process of education all children without discrimination in appearance, intellectual abilities, verbal and communication skills etc (UNESCO, 1994). In 2000, at another conference in Senegal a framework for education for all children was designed where participants from around the world embarked on a journey to make education the rights for its citizen (Khan, 2011). After these conferences many countries made efforts to promote inclusive education by creating changes within the school system. Developing countries are facing problems implementing the theory of inclusive education, due to lack of teachers’ training, attitudes and funds…show more content…
According to a research conducted by Vorapanya (2008), it was discovered that the Thai education system is underfunded, therefore there is no monetary support to train and make qualified teachers available to teach the inclusion education program. With limited funding the resources needed for teaching and accommodating of SEN children are not readily available. Teacher are also underpaid for the amount of work that they are expected to carry out (Vorapanya, 2008). Thailand is a Buddhist country, where compassion is prevalent. They also believe in Karma, which influences the attitude of the people with disabilities. In Buddhist culture, it is believed that people get what is deserved of them, and thus disability is seen as Karma of a wrong doing committed in the previous life (Vorapanya, 2008). Parents are not usually willing to discuss their children’s disabilities in fear of society and therefore have limited knowledge of that the disabilities usually

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