English Language Literature Review

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Literature Review 2.1. Overview This study focuses on the teachers perceptions regarding the use of L1 in English classrooms. More specifically, what are the English teachers’ perceptions toward using Persian in classroom in different institutes in Kermanshah? And also in what circumstances and for what purposes do they prefer to switch to the mother tongue. This chapter will focus on the literature that I found helpful to understand these questions 1) what are the supports for the monolingual approach; 2) what are the supports for the bilingual approach? 2.2. Historical Background The Classical Method, also known as grammar-translation method (GTM), was a dominant method for English language teaching (ELT) profession during the 18th and…show more content…
The appearance of the Direct Method assisted to strengthen the idea that the use of the mother tongue should be prevented in the classroom. The presumption of the Direct Method was that second language learning reflected first language acquisition: lots of oral interaction, little grammatical points and no translation. Within the previous century, few have challenged the priority of the Direct Method principle: language can be learnt best through the target language (intralingual) as opposed to comparing and contrasting it with the learner's L1 (interlingual) (Stern, 1983). The Direct Method, although not totally praised by the ELT profession, formed the basis for various monolingual methods that would come to dominate the profession to the present day. The next prevailing method to appear was Audiolingualism in the 1950s and 1960s. The Audiolingual method encouraged leaving the L1 inactive while learning the…show more content…
CLT, which emphasized the importance of speaking, has reached a considerable success in the English language teaching world, with both ESL and EFL institutions. Even though more recent methods, such as the Communicative Method and the Task-based Approach do not explicitly omit the L1 from the classroom instructions, the L1 is typically mentioned only when describing avoidance of its use (Cook, 2001). ELT has evolved over the past hundred or more years under the explicit and implicit assumption that the first language has little or no place in the classroom (Cook

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