Climate Change In Africa

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Understanding and identifying effects of climate change is loaded with difficulties especially in Africa. Overall, Africa has a highly diverse and variable climate. More so, there is still great uncertainty about the key climatic processes and their consequences on the African environment. Despite all these uncertainties about the future climatic conditions, at least it’s known what’s likely to happen in the near future (Conway, 2009). What is known is that the temperatures are estimated to rise by 2OC due to the warming of the earth’s atmosphere and ocean (IPCC, 2007a). Agricultural production is highly dependent on both precipitation and temperatures which are important aspects of climate change (ADB&IFPRI, 2009). In Kenya, impacts of climate…show more content…
Given that, more rainfall patterns will change in timing, intensity bring forth floods and subsequently followed by drier and longer drought periods (IFAD, 2008). In Sub Sahara Africa, all countries have experienced more than 10 drought periods between 1970 and 2004 (Egure, 2012). Noticeably, crops and livestock are directly affected by temperature and water stress (ADB, 2009). Climate change results to higher temperatures which increase evapo-transpiration in crops. Rainfall stress will also reduce agricultural productivity through reducing subsurface water runoff that infiltrates to groundwater, thus reducing the water available for irrigation which is dependent on the available Internal Renewable water (CCAFs,…show more content…
Increase in temperatures also promotes incidences of pests and diseases which ruin productivity of crops and livestock. On other hand, climate change indirectly affects agricultural production, such as emerging and existing trends, economic & social instability that has become more visible in the dry land areas inhabited by pastoral communities (Egeru, 2012). In addition, effects of climate change multiply and exaggerate water scarcity among the pastoral communities leading to more devastating effects. In northern Kenya, for example water scarcity has declined water levels in Lake Turkana which has led to ethnic conflicts between Kenyan and Ethiopian communities (Omosa, 2005). Climate change is said to have made worse water related conflicts in Wajir Kenya among the pastoral community using the water resources. For example, it affected delivery of education services, food security, health care services and trade in connection to increased and high poverty rates in these areas of Kenya (Okech, 2011). Conflict in dryland areas from climate change also is associated with three dimensions; political, commercial and traditional conflicts. At the same time where borders and agro-pastoralists exist, more raids of livestock are occurring between Uganda, Kenya and South Sudan (Orindi et al., 2007). The traditional conflicts are mainly associated with waterholes due to climate variability.

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