Biotechnology In Biotechnology

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The focus of genetics is the gene, the basic goal of laboratory geneticists is the isolation, characterization, and manipulation of genes. Although it is relatively easy to isolate a sample of DNA from a collection of cells, finding a specific gene within this DNA sample can be compared to finding a needle in a haystack (Anthony J.F. Griffiths). Any small tissue sample can contain kilometres long DNA. The recombinant DNA technology has made it possible for an individual to isolate one gene or any other segment of DNA, enabling researchers to determine its nucleotide sequence, study the transcripts, mutate the transcript in a highly specific ways, and reinsert the modified sequence into a living organism. According to phenotypic effect and…show more content…
In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mold Penicillium. His work led to the purifying the antibiotic compound formed by the mold by Howard Florey, Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley – to form what we today know as penicillin. In 1940, penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections within humans. The field of modern biotechnology is thought to have been born in 1971 when Paul Berg's experiments in gene splicing had its early success. Herbert W. Boyer and Stanley N. Cohen significantly advanced the new technology in 1972 by transferring genetic material into a bacterium, such that the imported material would be…show more content…
This development of new technologies has resulted in production of a large amount of biochemically defined proteins with medical significance and has created a huge potential for pharmaceutical industries. The biochemically derived therapeutics are largely extra cellular proteins that are used in either chronic replacement therapies or for the treatment of life threatening indications (Pandey Shivanand, Suba Noopur,2010). Biochemistry mostly deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provides the structure of each cell and performs various functions associated with life. Researchers in biochemistry have used specific techniques that are native to biochemistry, but increasingly combined with techniques and ideas developed in the fields of genetics, molecular biology and biophysics. There has never been a difficult line amongst these disciplines in terms of content and technique. Nowadays, the terms molecular biology and biochemistry are nearly

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