Smallpox Case Study

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CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Smallpox is a highly contagious disease with a long incubation period, usually between 12-14 days. Smallpox is part of the poxviridae family, meaning it can infect both vertebrates and invertebrates. The virions of the virus are enveloped externally and internally. The Variola virus produces a double strand DNA dependent RNA. This dsDNA replicates at a lower rate than an RNA virus. The RNA virus has the ability to edit out any mistakes during polymerase replication, unlike DNA dependent viruses. (Wikipedia) FIGURE 1: SMALL POX VIRUS The smallpox virus is about 200-400 nanometers in size, and is brick shaped (FIGURE 1). The virus has 2 membranes. The outer membrane is enveloped and the inner membrane contains…show more content…
However, few in the health care system possess the necessary management skills to design or implement programs for community-wide delivery of services. Thus, even prior to the global smallpox eradication program, most endemic countries assigned special teams to provide smallpox vaccination. Similarly, special teams and program were created to deal with tuberculosis, yaws and malaria, as well as for vector control, family planning, and other problems requiring the delivery of services throughout the population. The inadequacy of traditional health care structures in dealing with community-wide disease control programs was amply confirmed in the smallpox eradication program. Health centers for example, were customarily directed by personnel whose training and preoccupation were with curative medicine, whose management skills were limited and who rarely left the health centers. Few centers gave vaccinations of any type; cases of smallpox were only occasionally reported and then usually with great delay; outbreaks were rarely contained. Likewise, hospitals performed poorly, often augmenting smallpox transmission because of inadequate or non-existent isolation pro-cedures; even the hospital personnel themselves were often unvaccinated. Thus, a specially dedicated and trained professional staff was necessary at all levels to design and…show more content…
Educate Vaccine Candidates & Their Family Members & Close Contacts. Provide briefings on smallpox, smallpox vaccine, risks, benefits, issues regarding site care, and ways to prevent auto-inoculation and contact transfer of vaccinia. Permit ample time to answer questions. Ideally, hold education and medical screening events at least the day before vaccination, to allow time for questions to be answered, medical Screening Process should be advised, Post-Vaccination Care must be given. Reminding vaccine recipients of importance of not touching vaccination site and using barriers (e.g., Band-Aids, sleeves) and hand washing to prevent auto-inoculation and contact transfer. Instruct vaccine recipients about expected vaccination

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