Metacognition In Student Learning

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INTRODUCTION Metacognition has an importance on academic performance, problem solving, and student learning. For instance several researches viewed metacognition as a predictor of learning (Flavell, 1979; Glaser, 1990; Veenman &Elshout, 1995; Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1993). Metacognition involves knowledge of cognitive, affective and motivational characteristics of thinking (Paris & Winograd, 1990). Metacognition is thinking about thinking (Corno & Mandinach, 1983). Metacognitive skills include procedural knowledge that is required for the regulation of and control over one’s learning activities such as task analysis, planning, monitoring, checking, and reflection (Brown, 1978; Brown & DeLoache, 1978; Flavell, 1992; Kluwe, 1987). Although metacognitive awareness may occur at an earlier age (Kluwe, 1987; Kuhn, 1999), the development of metacognitive skills may…show more content…
Some researchers claimed that using of metacognitive strategies may be results of intelligence (e.g., Kurtz & Borkowski, 1987; Schneider, Borkowski, Kurtz, & Kerwin, 1986; Schneider, Kordel, & Weinert, 1987, Swanson, 1987). Also, Sternberg (1990) considered metacognitive skills as a main component of his triarchic theory of intelligence. Gifted students display greater metacognitive awareness than non-gifted

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