Homeostasis Case Study

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Introduction Homeostasis is how the organism maintains a constant internal environment. It does this by using a negative feedback system to regulate blood glucose levels. Glucose are molecules which gives our bodies energy to survive/allows our cells to carry out respiration. Consuming foods with high sugar/carbohydrate concentration will cause an increase in our blood glucose levels, whereas fasting or doing exercise will decrease the blood glucose levels. Therefore the body needs a mechanism in which it can counteract an increase or decrease in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose regulation in which our bodies have to keep is at a set point (5.5mmolL-1). Our brains need a high supply of glucose so that it can function and allow us…show more content…
This then results in the liver converting glucose into glycogen. The body cells metabolise the extra glucose leaving the body with low blood glucose levels. The body has to prioritise the metabolism of alcohol before it can produce any more glucose to raise blood glucose levels. This is because alcohol is toxic and if not metabolised first then it will interfere with many other processes. Once the alcohol has been metabolised, the body can then undergo glucose production. Since alcohol affects the body's capacity to balance blood glucose levels, it means that you won't have any glucose available and your body will therefore be dehydrated due to alcohol being metabolised, therefore your sports performance will decrease as a result. Liver disease will also be a result of large consumptions of alcohol over long periods of time, this is because of how it affects the body's negative feedback system (not allowing it to…show more content…
Special glucose transporters do not require energy and move the glucose molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, until equilibrium is reached. Low levels of glucose in important cells e.g the brain so that glucose can keep flowing in. Each hormone has its own protein that it will bind to/receptor. Once attached they stimulate a message within cell. Hormones circulate bloodstream until each protein has specific hormone. Once attached its said to be activated. Can take up to an hour to produce more insulin (and package it). So beta cells make some insulin in advance and package them in vesicles waiting until needed. Once needed, vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and therefore releasing insulin into the bloodstream. Without being let in, hormone regulates cell functions- transduction. As soon as insulin receptor is activated, insulin receptor is then inside a vesicle. Transduction signal is then shut off due to vesicle getting acidified. Insulin then gets cut up by the protease enzyme. All of this happens in about a minute, meaning that insulin can still help out the other organs when blood glucose levels start to decrease. To catalyse information of the glycogen polymers insulin binds to its receptor which is on the surface of liver cells. This then activates signals which then results in the activation of enzyme glycogen synthase. Then on the surface of the liver

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