Gas Hydrate In Gas Hydrates

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Chapter 1 PHASE STABILITY & STORAGE of GREENHOUSE GASES IN Gas hydrates Introduction 1.1 Gas Hydrates: Natural gas hydrate, a non-stoichiometric inclusion compound, forms at relatively high pressure and low-temperature conditions, in which guest molecules occupy the cages constructed by water molecules through a hydrogen bond. Gas hydrates are usually found in marine sediments and permafrost regions. Gas hydrates are generally found in three crystalline hydrate-structures under moderate pressure conditions (<10 MPa) viz. sI, sII and sH. Methane (CH4) is the most common hydrate found in nature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) is among those who form structure sI [Sloan 2008]. The driving force behind the hydrate formation is super saturation, which…show more content…
Though most of the people believe that Davy discovered gas hydrates first, Priestley is the first scientist to create gas hydrate in the laboratory [Koh 2002]. The interest in hydrates began only with the emergence of the modern petroleum industry. The formation of gas hydrate plugs in petroleum pipelines and production facilities is early recognized as a problem and led to the first major research on gas hydrates, which are focused on hydrate prevention and elimination. Hydrate as an energy resource was not recognized until 1965 when Makogen et al. Announced gas hydrates in the Siberian permafrost [Makogon 1965]. There has been no systematic effort to map the global hydrate reserves and the estimates put forward vary widely (1015 – 1018 m3 of gas) [Sloan 2008]. But there is a consensus that even the most conservative estimates are large and the global hydrate reserve contains enormous amounts of energy. Gas hydrates became a potential energy source because of the global energy demand, the need for cleaner burning fuels and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Research in this field receives increasing attention from industry and academic sections.…show more content…
They are widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in the sediment of outer continental margins. Naturally occurring gas hydrate field is discovered in 1964by a Russian drilling crew of Messoyakha, a Siberian gas field[Makogon 1965].Further interest is gained after identifying in several other locations around the world, where methane found in a frozen form [Makogon 2010].Gas volume is measured from source locations dependent on a number parameters of the reservoir, including the areal extent of the gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation (Kvenvolden 2001).With the discovery of several gas hydrate locations, many researchers are working on production of natural gas from hydrates. The field tests are carried out at different places. Mallik is the one such site in the Mackenzie River Delta of Canada [Dallimore2005 and Ashford 2012]. Another one is the Eileen methane hydrate accumulation (i.e., Mount Elbert and Ignik Sikumi tests) on the North Slope of Alaska [Hunter 2011]. Most recently, the completion of the world’s first marine methane hydrate production test happened in the Nankai Trough offshore of Japan [Yamamto 2014]. Natural gas hydrate accumulations are identified based on the results of seismic mapping, logging, well drilling and core sampling. These data are

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