Chlorine Lab Report

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Seminar Report On FORMATION AND CONTROL OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND THE ROLE OF PRECURSORS Submitted by Neha Sharma (Roll Number : 143180005) Under the supervision of Prof. Suparna Mukheji CONTENTS Contents ii List of Figures iii List of TableS iv Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Objectives 2 1.3 Scope of Project 2 1.4 Structure of Report 2 Chapter 2 Literature Review 4 2.1 Introduction 4 2.2 Chemistry of Chlorine as a Disinfectant 4 2.3 Alternative Disinfectants 7 2.3.1 Chloramines 7 2.3.2 Chlorine dioxide 8 2.3.3 Ozone 8 2.4 DBP Precursors 8 2.4.1 Natural Organic Matter (NOM) 8…show more content…
There is an increase in trend of using chloramine as a disinfectant because of its capability of maintaining a residual throughout the distribution system. Chloramines form only trace amounts of THMs and trihalogenated HAAs (THAAs). Lower amounts of dihalogenated HAAs (DHAAs) and total organic halogen (TOX) are formed as compared to that from chlorination, but the amount of formation changes with the dosage, chlorine to ammonia ratio and pH (Diehl et al., 2000). The cause of concern is that the amount of unidentified DBPs increases significantly as compared to those obtained from chlorination and hence the effects of DBPs formed during chloramination cannot be predicted (Hua and Reckhow, 2007). According to Lee et al., 2007 chloramine application can reduce chloroform formation but increases N-DBP formation. This is the major drawback of chloramine application as it can increase the toxicity level of DBPs formed. Also 70% of the TOX produced by using chloramines comes under unidentified DBPs, so this fraction may contain a significant amount of toxilogically harmful compounds (Hua and Reckow, 2007). Some of the products which are of concern due to chloramine disinfection are chloropicrin, cyanogen chloride and 1,1-dichloropropanone (Boorman,…show more content…
XAD-8 resins favours the isolation of high molecular weight hydrophobics and XAD-4 isolates weakly hydrophobic acid fractions. Hydrophilics are not adsorbed on either of the resins but can be separated further using AG-MP-50 cationic and WA-10 a weak anionic resin (Marhaba et al., 2003).Some disadvantages of using fractionation methods include physical alterations in NOM due to changes in pH during fractionation, irreversible adsorption of NOM onto resins, contamination from resin bleeding, size-exclusion effects and operational conditions (Matilainen et al., 2011). According to Lu at al. (2009) hydrophobic acids have the greatest potential to form DBPs Iin chlorinated

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