Diabetes Lab Report

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Diabetes Mellitus: The food we eat is ultimately broken down into the simplest form of sugar, glucose which passes through blood to various cells in the body and provides energy for the functioning of the cells. Excess glucose is stored in the body for future usage by action of two hormones produced in the pancreas namely Insulin and Glucagon. Insulin stores excess glucose for future use and glucagon converts the stored sugar to glucose in case of emergencies [1], thus they help in regulating blood glucose levels as shown in fig1.1. Fig.1.1: Regulation of blood glucose by Insulin and Glucagon [1] Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder where the Beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas does not…show more content…
Some of the tests are described below. 1.4.1 Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) Test: Venous blood is drawn from the patient’s body after 8-12 hours of fasting and blood glucose is estimated in the laboratory. Usually this test is performed in the morning on an empty stomach. It takes 40 minutes to 2 hours to obtain results from FBS test. If the glucose levels are between 70-100mg/dl during fasting it is considered to be normal. Anything beyond 100 mg/dl is considered to be high and the person must be either pre diabetic or diabetic. 1.4.2 2- hour Post Prandial Blood Sugar (2-h PPBS) Test: Blood sugar is quantified in the laboratory after drawing blood from the patient’s vein 2 hours post eating a meal. Sugar levels up to 180 mg/dl is considered to be normal. Anything beyond that is high and there’s a risk of diabetes. Usually FBS and PPBS tests are done in pairs as it gives a better picture about the patient’s blood sugar levels and insulin activity. 1.4.3 Oral Glucose Tolerance Test…show more content…
This is very useful for self-monitoring of blood sugar as it is very simple to use and less painful and gives results in a few seconds. Both fasting (FGRBS) and postprandial (PPGRBS) are done to estimate blood glucose. 1.5 Disadvantages of Conventional Blood Glucose Tests: • These tests are painful for the patients as they involve drawing blood from the patient’s body. • Since they are invasive risk of infections is also high. • Laboratory tests are time consuming. Tests like OGTT require the patients to be present at the venue for 3 to 4 hours. It also takes time to obtain reports. These tests are expensive. 1.6 Motivation: It is predicted that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in the world by the year 2030 and 80% of death due to diabetes is occur in low and middle income countries like India [2]. Hence it is very essential for early detection and proper precautions to be taken to avoid the adverse effects of this disease as described in section

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