Water In Food Product

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Water is generally present in every food product. Through research, scientists began to discover that water in food has an important role in the spoilage of the products. More precisely, it is much more the active water, which is the main parameter, than the total amount of water present, which spoils the product. Water activity (aw) is then a parameter with a great significance to determine the physical characteristics, the shelf life and properties of the product. In research and development, aw has to be highly considered when selecting ingredients and additives for new product formulation. Therefore, it also needs to be considered in this study, because new ingredients and additives are added to a recipe to observe the evolution of the…show more content…
The process used to reduce the water activity can vary from the simple drying, which removes the water or by decreasing water availability with a freezing step. In addition, additives such as salt, sugars and others additives respecting the regulatory agencies requirements, are used to reduce this factor in food products. Their role is also to decrease the water availability by binding the water molecules. The goal is then to save the characteristics of the product or to avoid microorganism growth and stabilise the food in the packaging.…show more content…
Indeed, Enzymatic hydrolysis has a tendency to increase with raising the water activity, thus enzymatic reactions are promoted by higher values of aw. In the case of non-enzymatic browning, these reactions in foods could spoil the quality of the product by affecting the colour and the texture. The induction, defined as the time to detect visually browning, is inversely proportional to water activity. The type of reactant sugars, amines, pH, temperature and also water activity influences browning reactions. [8] Moreover, the type of solutes or humectants used to adjust the water activity may have a role in the non-enzymatic browning. [22] [24] The influence of the water activity in food texture is quite obvious. However, some difficulties comparing different kind of products have been found challenging to explain. Some solid foods show higher levels compared to those liquid products. The understanding for a study is then still not clear through analytical methods such as instrumental tools. Maybe sensory analysis with a trained panel could be more useful in the future for further studies. Finally, pigments are important constituents, which are affected by this parameter. Anthocyanins pigments are the ones who give the typical colour to the strawberry jam or spread. On the one hand, a study related to another pigment such as chlorophyll in spinach,

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