Urban Park Design

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2.1 Introduction A study of urban park design on users’ attachment plays an important role for enabling social interaction and fostering community development (Nassar, 2014). The understanding in design development of urban park layout and planning may consider users need will contribute to the encouragement and stimulating social cohesion. The chapter highlights the information of design planning of urban parks for users’ attachment helps in improving social interaction. In other words, this literature review comprises of three main parts which consists of introduction to urban park, users’ attachment to a place in urban park, impact of social interaction among users and components of urban landscape planning design influence the users’…show more content…
J, 2002). A park is an area of natural, semi-natural, or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats (Vardanyan et. al, 2015). Park refers to public open spaces laid out formally for leisure and recreation. Besides, Sadeghian and Vardanyan (2015) stated the park consists of grassy areas, rocks, soil, and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artefacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Based on article Health space & places (2009) stated park refers to land that has been reserved for the purpose of formal and informal sport and recreation, preservation of natural environments, provision of green space and/or urban storm water management. According to Springgate (2001), parks are peaceful, tranquil, beautiful spaces to which people are intrinsically attracted. Besides, according to Galen Cranz (1982) argues that, today, the word “park” is applied “To an almost indiscriminate range of properties, from children playgrounds, neighbourhood playfields, golf, bathing, and camping areas, athletic fields to zoological and botanical gardens, arboretums, landscape ovals, triangles and other small segments of the street grid, neighbourhood parks, downtown squares, scenic outlets [areas], waterfront and land…show more content…
By the end of the 19th century, most of the cities in the United States had set aside land for open space development (Sideris, 1995). Inspired by this, landscape architect and planner Frederick Law Olmsted began investigating how these public spaces could be used to relieve the stress of urban life on its residents and workforce (Sideris, 1995). In addition, urban parks were seen as a way to enhance morality, break the tension of city life, and revitalize inner-city areas (He, 2015). Urban landscape park beginning with Central Park in New York where the planning and development were the first bid milestones in the municipal park system of the nation (Garvin, 2000). Refer to Figure 2.1. The evolution of urban parks in America can be divided into four eras: the pleasure ground, the reform park, the recreation facility, and the open space system (Cranz,

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