Professional Development Literature Review

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3. Literature Review: Functional Professional Development creates a way for administrators to engage educators in learning opportunities which are encouraging, job-embedded, instructionally-concentrated and ongoing. Using these characteristics a guide, administrators can design significant learning experiences for every educators. Tremendous amount of research and thesis have been done on many aspects of Professional Development. These researches are guideline for creating a program for professional learning. 3.1. The effective features of PD associated to advancement: Many researchers have been writing about the features of functional Professional Development which have increased our understanding on this particular subject substantially.…show more content…
[3] The educators must have choice regarding the speed and direction of the learning process. 3.1.2. Job-embedded: In order to make Professional Development for teachers relevant and genuine, professional learning programs need to be job-embedded. The term Job-embedded is used when the professional development programs are integrated into the day-to-day works of educators which becomes a part of perpetual development cycle. Teaching professionals find professional learning process relevant when there is a relationship between their learning experiences and their daily job, and when it fulfils their specific requirement and concerns. [2] 3.1.3. Collaborative: For effective Professional Development, teachers need to have opportunity to learn from their colleagues and to share their daily challenges and ideas, and to work together towards a possible solution. Administrators need to design the professional learning programs in such a way that includes some kind of disciplined collaboration among educators. These kinds of programs can engage educators more cognitively and emotionally through various tasks, problem solving and discussions. According to one study, various kinds of dynamic participation support educators in remembering almost 90 percent of experiences they have gathered through Professional…show more content…
Challenges to Implementation: Implementing theoretical knowledge and insights into the professional lives of teachers has not been easy. One of the many concerns among many administrators and teachers regarding Professional Development is that it does not actually work because of the broken nature of the system. [9] One of the many reasons of this concern is that in many countries the programs designed to developing the professional ability of educators is short-term and single-event. These kinds of developing programs are not in all probability suitable for long term goals that can have an impact on teaching and improve student accomplishment. [10] To implement professional learning programs properly, policy makers and administrators need to understand and realize the potential obstacles that wait ahead. Here is a short compilation of these potential challenges. 3.2.1. Friction with work schedule: In many countries, where professional development was implemented, teachers find it difficult to manage their time between day-to-day job and learning programs. According to a research by OECD in 2009 [11], 73% of teachers from Korea and 65% of teachers from Portugal reposted the professional learning programs to be in conflict with their job schedule. Although, there are different reasons among teachers for such reports, this issue needs to be addressed in order to satisfy educators about these

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