Heart Failure: A Case Study

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Heart failure (HF) continues to be a major public health and economy burden worldwide, because of its chronic and progressive course, which carries significant morbidity and mortality risk. At present, approximately 26 million people worldwide are living with HF (whitepaper), (with the prevalence rising to ≥10% among persons 70 years of age or older (vodic H F 2012).) The outcome (prognosis) of these patients is poor, with survival rates worse than those for bowel, breast or prostate cancer (some cancers). (ESC 2014-whitepaper). ((No less important are economic effects of disease, e.g. the overall economic cost of HF, rated in 197 countries, in 2012. was estimated at $108 billion per annum (Int J Cardio 2014).)) Acute heart failure is (clinical syndrome) of a particular interest as a life threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention and usually leads to urgent hospital admission.…show more content…
One of these promising novel biomarkers is growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), which is divergent member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily (moja 26-Bootcov) (also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 and under many other names,(synonyms)). Although GDF-15 is minimally secreted in heart and most tissues under physiological conditions (bootchov-moja 26, A canary in a coal Mine 2012), its expression in cardiomyocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells increases rapidly in response to cardiovascular injury, such as pressure overload, oxidative stress, heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion, and atherosclerosis (sve-moja 6,7,9). Though (however), exact biological role of GDF-15 in cardiovascular and other systems is not completely known (revealed), (was not found

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