Collectivistic Culture

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In individualistic cultures, an individual’s relationships mostly based on interpersonal relations, equality, personal goals in life with his own clearer boundaries. In this context he as an individual learn new skills, social skills, he has his own choices, he take decisions, and his dealing with others is more effective. On the other side is the collectivistic culture where an individual experiences more social support, more boundaries, and a sense of belongingness but he miss individual freedom (Schwartz, 1990; Triandis, 2001). These differences of individualistic and collectivistic cultures are related with each other but it was the Western picture and their interpersonal problems. In Pakistan collectivistic culture is totally different.…show more content…
People who developed interpersonal theories they focused on the identification of interpersonal relationship that leads the person to the maladaptive relationship (Horowitz, Rosenberg, & Bartholomew, 1993). Many other theorists (Bowlby, 1973, 1988; Cassidy, 2008; Fonagy, Target, & Gergely, 2003; Grossmann, Grossmann, Winter, & Zimmermann, 2002) recommended that the internal working model of the children’s have great impact on the emotions, thoughts and relations with other peer groups. For the explanation of the interpersonal problems a model was introduced (Horowitz, 2004). On the basis of this model Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000) Developed for the assessment of the interpersonal problems. There are lot of theories (Andersen & Chen, 2002; Gutman, 1992; Horowitz, 2004) that explained the interpersonal problems in the way of nature, types and the reasons that mostly human being experience. There are lot of reason that cause interpersonal problems such as age, stage and psychosocial cultural factors. It was suggested that that interpersonal problems must be identified early in the life for possible intervention and counseling. Therefore, in the present study interpersonal problems was identified with the link of parental rearing…show more content…
One of them was inventory of interpersonal problems (Horowitz, 1979). In the inventory of interpersonal problems the item was 127 that were based on the presenting problems of the patients. The age of the patients were 21-55 years. The psychometric properties also established (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, Ureño, & Villaseñor, 1988). Inventory of interpersonal problems was used to measure the results and consequences of the psychotherapy (Ruiz, Pincus, Borkovec, Echemendia, Castonguay, & Ragusea, 2004). One more inventory of interpersonal problems (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) consist on 32 items. The limiting factor of this inventory was that it was based on the clinical patients. The measure was developed on clinical papulation not with the general papulation. In 2005 a self-report questionnaire was developed (Ingles, Hildago, & Mendez, 2005) to measure the interpersonal problem for adolescents. This self-report questionnaire can measure five types of interpersonal difficulties such as Assertiveness, Heterosexual Relationships, Public Speaking, Family Relationships, and Close Friendships. All these scales have psychometric properties. But the Inventory of interpersonal problems only for clinical patients. It cannot be use for general papulation. In self-report questionnaire Heterosexual Relationship was not accepted in different cultures. People faced problems in expression when it is related

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