Literature Review: Basic Concepts Of Speech

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Basic Concepts of Speech: Speech is a complex phenomenon. People rarely understand how is it produced and perceived. The naive perception is often that speech is built with words, and each word consists of phones. The reality is unfortunately very different. Speech is a dynamic process without clearly distinguished parts. It's always useful to get a sound editor and look into the recording of the speech and listen to it. Figure 3 illustrates a speech recording in an audio editor. Figure 3: Speech Record in an audio editor All modern descriptions of speech are to some degree probabilistic. That means that there are no certain boundaries between units, or between words. Speech to text translation and other applications…show more content…
Sometimes, syllables are defined as “reduction-stable entities”. To illustrate, when speech becomes fast, phones often change, but syllables remain the same. Also, syllables are related to intonational contour. There are other ways to build subwords - morphologically-based in morphology-rich languages or phonetically-based. Subwords are often used in open vocabulary speech recognition. Sub words form words. Words are important in speech recognition because they restrict combinations of phones significantly. If there are 40 phones and an average word has 7 phones, there must be 40^7 words. Luckily, even a very educated person rarely uses more then 20k words in his practice, which makes recognition way more feasible. Words and other non-linguistic sounds, which we call fillers (breath, um, uh, cough), form utterances. They are separate chunks of audio between pauses. They don't necessary match sentences, which are more semantic…show more content…
As a further refinement we may distinguish between reversible bilingual systems and non-reversible systems. In a reversible bilingual system the process involved in the analysis of a language may be inverted without change for the generation of output in the same language. Thus, a system for English analysis might mirror directly a system for English generation in, say, an English-French bilingual system. The difficulties, both theoretical and practical, in designing truly reversible bilingual systems are so great that nearly all bilingual systems are in effect two perhaps quite similar uni-directional systems running on the same computer. Methods of analysis and generation for either of the languages are designed independently, without attempting structural reversibility. A bilingual system is therefore, typically, one designed to translate from one language into one other in a single

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