advertising effectiveness. The advertising messages that embed the cultural values and norms will be effective in a greater manner since the consumer’s positive reception is higher (Gunaratne, 2000).
The masculinity/femininity dimension is defined as follows: ‘The dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life. Masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinctive, femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap" (Hofstede, 1994). In masculine societies, performance and achievement are important; and achievement must be demonstrated, so status brands or products are important to show…show more content… In other words, the degree to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations. In cultures of high uncertainty avoidance, there is a need for rules and formality to structure life. This translates into the search for truth and a belief in experts, and people in such cultures are less open to change and innovation than of people in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, further low uncertainty culture depicts less bureaucratic among people (De Mooij 2010). This explains differences in the adoption of innovations between the two different cultural dimensions (Yaveroglu & Donthu 2002; Yeniurt & Townsend 2003; Tellis et al. 2003). Individuals in high uncertainty avoidance cultures prefer structure and predictability, deriving explicit laws and rules in behaviour (Ghemawat and Reiche, 2011), because of this situation, they try to keep a control on future events and reluctant to face risks. It is thus conclusive the people from high uncertainty avoidance cultures are resisting change, displaying greater anxiety, emotions and aggressiveness in the events of their environment. De Mooij (2002) subtlety explains the contrast as, low uncertainty avoidance cultures have active approach on health by focusing on fitness and sports actives, where as in high uncertainty avoidance cultures,…show more content… Thus, power distance is a parameter to articulate the influence between supervisors and assistants in hierarchies as accepted by subordinates (Hofstede, 1984) in organisations’ context. Hofstede (1994) argues that, in cultures where the power distance is high everyone has their fair place in society and there is respect for seniors and people in authority. There are dependency relationships between individuals in low power and high power range. Accordingly, rigid hierarchical concepts, centralised decision making bodies and uneven dispersal of privileges would be voluntarily accepted by individuals in high power distance cultures. In contrast, distributed power cultures, a balance in sharing authority and responsibilities, less rigid organisational structures and least social structures are embraced by individuals in low power distance nationalities (De Mooij,