Cocoa Case Study

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Chapter 2: Ecology 2.1 Distribution Cocoa is native to the Amazon Valley (Rios Napo, Putumayo and Amazonas), within the limits of Colombia, Brazil and Ecuador where there is greater genetic diversity of the species of the genus Theobroma is. Through the Orinoco and Andes was dispersed to the north of the continent (Creole cocoas with white almonds) and the Amazon and Atlantic came northeastern Brazil and West Africa (Amazon cocoa with violet almonds). The natural breeding of native Amazonian outsiders formed with the Trinitarian cocoa is widely distributed in the world . 2.1.1 Affinity and Origin Cocoa is native to the Amazon Valley (Rios Napo, Putumayo and Amazonas), within the limits of Colombia, Brazil and Ecuador where greater genetic…show more content…
Cocoa grows almost exclusively from 20 degrees north of the equator to 20 degrees south of the equator , an area known as the tropical belt; and because it is rather narrow, the number of countries in which it may be grown productively is very limited. AThe warm climate is ideal for cocoa with an ideal annual temperature range s between 23º-25º and precipitation of 1500-2500 mm . well distributed throughout the year. It is essential to know the average monthly temperature and monthly water balance (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) for Caco because all physiological processes such as vegetative and productive growth are regulated by these factors. Very strong winds are harmful to cocoa and its effects must be countered with the use of barriers windbreaks by planting suitable trees, such as rubber, walnut, Gliricidia or palms such as Chontaduro, taking into account the direction of the winds and exposure culture to the sun…show more content…
Mycorrhizae confer competitive advantage especially in soils with poor nutrient supply. The cacao tree is the master of using other organisms for its benefit. It has developed specific and very effective adaptations that allow it to thrive in its environment, most of which involve taking advantage of its neighbors. Cacao trees live under the shade of taller rainforest trees. Theobroma cacao uses this shade to protect its very delicate seeds from sunburn along with wind protection. A more mutualistic relationship occurs between the cacao tree and a few species of midges, the tree's main pollinators . The tree rewards the midges by producing cherelles, tiny pods that die before they can grow. These immature pods rot and provide the perfect home for its tiny pollinators. Another important interaction of the cacao tree involves its adaptation for brightly colored pods. These multicolored seed encasements, along with a delicious fleshy pulp inside, attract the attention of monkeys, squirrels and some birds. The tree relies on animals to pick its pods and carry them off for seed dispersal. The bitter taste of the seeds prevents them from being eaten and allows for the perfect placement when they are dropped yards away from the tree

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