The Pros And Cons Of Water Pollution

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Water pollution is a global problem, especially in terms of quality, that is particularly acute today. The principal sources of water pollution are human activities such as industrial and agricultural production as well as urbanization. A significant amount of pollutants like hazardous organic materials, mineral pollutants and pathogenic microorganism are being discharged into water sources, globally [1]. Slaughterhouses are among the one that pollute the environment. A large amount of fresh water is used in slaughterhouse facilities for numerous cleaning procedures, including carcass blood washing, equipment sterilization, and work area cleaning [2]. Wastewater from slaughterhouse is a mixture of the processing water from both the slaughtering…show more content…
In addition to the high level of organic compounds, pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., and veterinary antibiotics are released into wastewaters. They have adverse and varied effects on the environment: water-borne diseases, eutrophication of waterways, dissolved oxygen depletion [3]. Slaughterhouse wastewater effluents contain chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 1,000 - 10,000 mg/L, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of 1,000 - 8,000 mg/L, Total Nitrogen (TN) of 100 - 800 8 mg/L and fats of 20 - 400 mg/L [6-8]. Therefore, the…show more content…
The treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by various methods such as aerobic and anaerobic biological systems [7, 11, 12] and hybrid systems [5] have been intensively studied by many researchers. The limitation of aerobic treatment processes are high energy consumption for aeration and high sludge production [13]. The accumulation of suspended solids and floating fats which may lead to reduction in methogenic activity and biomass wash out and sensitive to high organic loading rates are limitations of anaerobic treatment [14]. However, physico-chemical processes, dissolved air flotation (DAF) and coagulation–flocculation units are also used for treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. These processes do not remove trace concentrations of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), bisphenol A, personal care products, trichloroethene, neurotoxins, endocrine disruptors, and perfluororinated surfactants [15-18]. Conventional technologies, such as chlorination and ozonation used to inactivate disease-causing microorganisms, are also responsible for the generation of hazardous compounds known as disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are suspected carcinogens that may pose a potential threat to public health [19, 20]. However, these conventional technologies fall short in removing recalcitrant contaminants which leads to effluents that and often do not

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