Team Efficacy Paper

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In the following section, this paper proposes a research model in which team diversity moderates the impacts of team efficacy on the performance of individual robot operators and their perception of team viability (Fig. 1). A. Team Efficacy Team efficacy refers to a team’s belief that the team can successfully accomplish its objectives [23]. Team efficacy is conceptually distinguished from self-efficacy [12], [24]. Team efficacy is one’s belief about his or her team as a whole (i.e. “We can”), while self-efficacy is one’s belief about oneself as an individual (i.e. “I can”) [25]. Since team efficacy implies mutual and reciprocal motivation and competence among team members, the construct has been considered crucial to understanding team effectiveness…show more content…
For instance, team efficacy often leads individual team members to put more effort into team tasks and work toward the team’s objectives rather than their own [27]. Team efficacy has been shown to decrease anxiety, stress, and worry among team members [18], [19]. Team efficacy has also been found to facilitate social cohesion within teams [13]. Teams with higher team efficacy have been reported to experience higher commitment and perceived performance [11], [28]. The impacts of team efficacy on team outcomes are not always positive [12], [29]. On one hand, most studies on team efficacy report the positive relationships between team efficacy and performance. For instance, player performance in sports teams has been shown to increase along with team efficacy [30]. Studies of traditional teams including work teams, military teams, and nursing groups have reported that team efficacy strongly predicted team performance and collective goal achievement [13]. However, other studies have found negative impacts of team efficacy on team outcomes [12], [29]. Kellett et al. [15], in a study of teams of three students, reported lower performance as team efficacy increased. This study employed only teams with the same gender. Team efficacy has also been found to decrease individual performance and satisfaction because of low individual commitment…show more content…
Team Diversity Demographic dimensions like ethnicity have long been studied in research of teams[29]. However, the impacts of team diversity vary by team contexts. Teams often benefit from the unique information derived from ethnic diversity to make better decisions and produce more creative solutions [33], [34]. On the other hand, ethnically diverse teams can also experience low performance and satisfaction [17], [21], [35]. Ethnically diverse teams often have weaker bonds among team members [17], [19], more conflicts [14], [46], and less motivation to work together [12]. Ethnic diversity is becoming an important topic in human‒robot interaction [36]. There are several reasons for this study to look at ethnic diversity. First, ethnic diversity is one of universal diversity dimensions in teams. It is becoming more common for teams using robots to be ethnically diverse, because teams are increasingly adopting robots [37]. Second, ethnicity is considered important in human‒robot interaction. For instance, scholars have investigated how robotic agents can invoke racial prejudices [36], [38]. Research shows that robots can represent gender and ethnicity through their behavior, speech, and appearance [1], [36], [39]. Although ethnic diversity has been found to be important in human‒robot interaction, research still lacks evidence of its impacts on teamwork in teams using

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