Pro-Poor Tourism Case Study

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Over the last few decades, tourism and its impacts to poverty and income distribution has been the interesting subject of many organizations, institutions, practitioners, and scholars. As mentioned earlier, UNWTO (2011) perceived tourism as a significant contributor to economic development and the achievement of the UN MDGs. One of the outcome of this approach was the emergence of the pro-poor tourism (PPT) concept in the late 1990s. PPT aims to ‘increase the net benefits for the poor from tourism’ and ensures that ‘tourism growth contributes to poverty reduction’ (Ashley, Roe, & Goodwin, 2001, p. viii). Proponents of PPT have argued that although tourism is a sector that mainly focuses on economic concerns, it has more potential for poverty…show more content…
For instance, Marcouiller et al., (2004) apply a Gini coefficient (in which 0 corresponds to perfect equality and 1 to perfect inequality) as a measure of income distribution in the US lake states. The results suggest that certain types of natural amenities particularly water-based resources are clearly linked to the income distribution among various income classes. Lee and O’Leary (2008) analyze the determinants of income inequality in chosen non-metropolitan communities in the US. Using data from 1990 to 2000, the results suggest that tourism and recreation-related variables such as tourism and recreation employment, and tourism and recreation earnings are recognized as factors that create a contribution to income inequality. Similarly, Lee (2009) investigates the trends and patterns of income inequality for tourism services-dependent states in the US. The data from the Population and Housing Census of 1990 and 2000 were analyzed and the result reveals that tourism-dependent states have higher income inequality than non-tourism dependent states. Also, income inequality has increased faster in tourism dependent states than for US as a whole. Incera and Fernández (2015) at a micro-level, investigate the impact of inbound tourism on income distribution of households in Galicia, Spain in 2008. Using a SAM model, the results provide evidence that high-income…show more content…
Residents’ attitudes and perceptions toward tourism impacts on the community has been extensively conducted since 1970s among scholars (Andereck, Valentine, Knopf, Vogt, 2005; Jurowski, Uysal, & Williams, 1997; Doxey, 1975). The goodwill of the local residents and their support is important for sustainable tourism development in the long term (Aguiló & Roselló, 2005; Ap, 1992; Brida, Riaño, & Zapata Aguirre, 2011). Their attitude may influence positively or negatively to making tourism development policies and the relationship between residents and

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