Urbanization And Urbanization In Brazil

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Brazil, the largest country in Latin America gained its independence from Portugal in 1822. Unlike most of the Latin American countries, Brazil did not fight a war of independence. Therefore, this country did not suffer the horrors of the liberation war but it was still ruled by a monarchical system of government. In 1889 Brazil became a republic and was ruled by a military government; this was preceded by the abolition of slavery in 1888. Brazilian coffee exporters ruled the country until 1930 when Getulio Vargas rose to power. In 1985 the military government peacefully cede power to civilian rulers. During all this time this nation continued to achieve industrial and agricultural growth. However, high-income inequality and crime remain as…show more content…
In the case of Brazil, the administrative seats of all Brazilian municipalities are officially considered as urban, regardless of their size. Yet, this paper will mainly focus on cities with over 20,000 inhabitants. Until the 50s the majority of population shift occurred in developed countries. The industrialization process that took place in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries attracted people from rural areas to the cities. After 1950, urbanization in these countries slowed down and started to double in the developing areas of the world, (Internet Geography, 2014) Between 1950 and 1992 the world’s GDP increased from $4 trillion to 23 trillion and the GDP per capita tripled. Consequently, private investment flows to developing countries increased from $5 billion to about $160 billion during the period, (UNDP, 1995:14). However, it was just after the early 80s that the integration of economies worldwide began to grow ever faster due to Globalization. The decline in commodity prices and oil prices had a negative effect on the economy of many developing countries. Consequently, they had to adapt because their export-driven economy was not offering them any growth, therefore, they implemented the so-called export-substation…show more content…
Between 1980 and 2013, Brazil’s HDI value increased from 0.545 to 0.744. Between 1980 and 2013, the life expectancy at birth in Brazil increased by 11.2 years, mean years of schooling increased by 4.6 years and expected years of schooling increased by 5.3 years. The GNI per capita in Brazil increased by approximately 55.9 percent between 1980 and 2013. Brazil’s HDI trends based on consistent time series. Life expectancy Expected years Mean years of GNI per capita HDI value at birth of schooling schooling (2011 PPP$) 1980 62.7 9.9 2.6 9,154 0.545 1985 64.5 11.1 3.2 8,409 0.575 1990 66.5 12.2 3.8 9,740 0.612 1995 68.5 13.3 4.6 10,602 0.650 2000 70.3 14.3 5.6 10,722 0.682 2005 71.7 14.2 6.6 11,517 0.705 2010 73.1 15.2 7.2 13,794

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