Plant Biotechnology In Plants

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Plant biotechnology: Plant biotechnology is a technique and science of modifying or changing the traits of plants so that they produce desired characteristics. Why to improve plant varieties? Due to the increase in population there is an increase in the requirement of food and we all know that plants are the major source of food for animals as well as for humans. Moreover the persistence of diseases is at very high level as bacteria viruses and pests are becoming resistant. So there is a need that plant varieties should b continuously improved and modified with the passange of time and need. Conventional techniques: The conventional crop/plant improvement techniques take 10-15 years for completion and includes 1.germplasm manipulations,…show more content…
Microprojectiles: it involves the penetration of target gene through the cell wall into the tissues using very high velocity of gene gun. Electroporation: The principle of this technique is permeable pore formation on plasma membrane by using electric field, allowing the transfer of DNA. Silicon fiber needles: The mixture of silicon fibers and targeted cells is introduced in a tube and vortexed. Due to mechanical force exerted by vortex, fibers penetrate into the cells, altering the genetic makeup of cells by inserting DNA. There are some other methods of transformation including PEG, liposomal entrapment, microlasers etc. DNA recombinant techniques: recombinant DNA technique has made possible the isolation and multiplication of specific DNA fragments allowing the molecular analysis of genes.the tools of recombinant DNA technology have been used to make genetically modified plants. Such modifications include the introduction of resistance to hrerbicides,insects, viruses, and bacterial and fungal diseases into plants. Plants have also been made to produce edible vaccines. This teschnique involes the following…show more content…
Actually a Marker is a “genetic tag” that works to identify a particular location within a plant’s genome/ DNA sequences. Markers could also be used in transferring one gene into a new specie or in plants for testing the inheritance pattern of many genes at once. Markers are based on either DNA or the proteins. DNA markers identify or allocate locations where the sequences are different among many varieties or breeding lines. These can be locations within genes or in the DNA between genes, as they are unique sequences and only are different between the plants of your interest. Differences like this are called polymorphisms, and there are many ways to detect them and use these as signposts lying within the chromosomes.examples are disease resistant rice Samba

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