Phenomenological Research Methodology

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Description of Methodology This study shall be empirical as it conducts research into the effects of culture shock on foreign workers who are in Africa, specifically, Accra, Ghana. Phenomenological research method has been adopted for the study. According to Welman and Kruger (1999, p. 189, cited in phenomenological research is focused on having knowledge about a social and psychological issue, studying it from the position of those who are the active partakers. The researcher who engages in phenomenological study focuses on practical experiences of those involved with the phenomenon being studied (Greene, 1997; Holloway, 1997; Kruger, 1988; Kvale, 1996; Maypole & Davies, 2001; Robinson & Reed, 1998;…show more content…
As a result of the nature of the gathered data as well as the time-consuming nature of the analysis that is required, lower sample sizes are usually taken in qualitative research (Elliot and Timulaka (n.d.). This can be tagged as purposeful sampling (Creswell, 1998). Many scholars or researchers are wary to suggest specifically sufficient sample sizes. Nevertheless, Gust, Bunce and Johnson (2006, p.59) state that while saturation is useful at the conceptual level, its practical direction as to what the sample size for a complex research should be before data are gathered is minimal. As for a phenomenological study of this nature, Creswell (1998, p.64) proposes five to twenty-five participants while Morse (1994, p.225) suggests not less than six participants. This study will make use of ten participants, but the questionnaire will be administered to more than ten people. As many expatriates as are willing to participate shall be administered since the overall number is anticipated to remain within the range proposed by Creswell (1998, p.64) and Morse (1994, p.225). The participants are entirely foreign workers in Accra, Ghana. They shall be polled from various occupations and services. There will be among them managers, accountants, sales persons, shop owners or keepers, and other categories of…show more content…
This is to ensure that the researcher assimilates the participant’s expression and meaning as much as possible. The researcher shall remove redundant expressions when they do not add value to the point being made. The coding of data at this stage in phenomenological research is preparatory as it helps to set data for the thoroughly structured analysis which should follow ( Descriptive materials shall be documented in order put them to use later in the analysis. A phenomenological study such as this usually involves the four steps stated below, and the study intends to use them; 1. Bracketing: Here, the researcher puts aside some of his/her fixed notions about the phenomenon under investigation. This is core to a phenomenological study of this nature, as there must be an isolation of the phenomenon in order to subject it to a thorough research. 2. Intuition: The researcher must be open to accept the meaning that is given to the phenomenon by those who have passed through the experience. The researcher may resourcefully vary the data until a point is reached when he/she gets such an understanding. 3. Analysis: Here, the researcher engages in coding or what may also be referred to as categorisation. This is for the purpose of making sense of the phenomenon and its exact

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