Labour Migration In India

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In some regions of India, three out of four households include a migrant. The effects of migration on individuals, households and regions add up to a significant impact on the national economy and society. Despite the numbers, not much is written on migration within or from India and its considerable costs and returns remain outside of the public policy realm. This paper reviews key issues relating to internal and external labour migration in India. It analyses the patterns, trends and nature of labour migration, reviews existing government and non-governmental policies and programmer, and briefly examines key policy issues and options. This section traces the evolution of the concept of human development. Though the concept dates back to…show more content…
These surveys may underestimate some migration flows, such as temporary, seasonal and circulatory migration, both due to empirical and conceptual difficulties. Since such migration and commuting is predominantly employment oriented, the data underestimate the extent of lab our mobility. Furthermore, migration data relate to population mobility and not worker mobility, although economic theories of migration are primarily about worker migration. It is not easy to disentangle these, firstly because definitions of migrants used in both surveys(change from birthplace and change in last usual place of residence), are not employment related. Secondly, migration surveys give only the main reason for migration and that only at the time of migration. Secondary economic reasons could be masked, as in the case of married women, who would cite other reasons for movement. Another problem is that migration data relate to stocks of migrants and not to flows, although different policy concerns relate to stocks (of different ages) and flows. Many of these concerns can be handled only by micro surveys, which have their own…show more content…
Migration statistics to the early 1990s also suggest a decline in mobility. In the 1991 census, using the change in residence concept, 27.4% of the population is considered to have migrated (that is, 232 million of the total 838million persons), which shows a considerable decline from 30.6% in 1971 and 31.2% in 1981. This is true for male and female migrants. In the case of males, it declined from 18.1% in 1971 to 14.7% in 1991.In the case of females, it declined from 43.1% in1971 to 41.6% in 1991. However, recent evidence based on NSS figures for 1992–1993 and 1999–2000, and indirectly supported by the census, suggests an increase in migration rates –from 24.7% to 26.6% over the period. This evidence suggests the proportion of migrants of both sexes, in both rural and urban areas, increased during the last decade of the 20th century. Migration in India is predominantly short distance, with around 60% of migrants changing their residence within the district of enumeration and over 20% within the state of enumeration while the rest move across the state boundaries. A significant proportion of women migrate over short distances, mainly following marriage. The proportion of male lifetime migrants is low in most poor states except Madhya Pradesh and high in most developed states. For inter-state migration, a similar trend is observed: developed states show high inter-state immigration while

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