Importance Of Pathology

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Pathology is a scientific discipline involves study of diseases such as cancers and infections in genetic, molecular, cellular and organ levels. Pathology involves examination of tissue, bodily fluid, organs, and autopsies in order to diagnose the disease. A pathology study examine how and why the disease develop, the process of the disease, and effects of the disease including its symptoms and complications involved. An understanding of diseases is important as it contributes to diagnostic tests to be carried out and better measures for prevention and treatment. For instance, the two pathologists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren who discovered the organism Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (Medicine, 2012).…show more content…
Examinations may be performed on body fluids or any material that is aspirated out from the body. It also involves in examinations of preparations that are scraped or washed from specific areas of the body. An example of a common diagnostic cytology is cervical smear. A cytopathology refers to the study of individual cells in a disease. Any sampled fluid or tissue is obtained from a patient, smeared onto a glass slide and stained. It is then examined by a pathologist to observe the number of cells, the type of cells they are, how they are clustered together, and the details of the cell. This is useful in determining whether a disease is present and the suitable diagnosis to be carried out. Cytology is usually used as a screening tool to look for disease and to decide whether or not more tests should be…show more content…
This technique has become a widely requested component of pathology in the workup of tissue. One of the subdivisions of molecular pathology is cytogenetics, which is the analysis of chromosomes, a form in which DNA is found in the cell nucleus. The most common techniques used in molecular pathology and cytogenetics are direct sequencing of DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Direct sequencing of DNA observes the individual genes or group of genes in order to detect which mutation is present in a particular tumour. This can be done through capillary electrophoresis or sanger sequencing, or by a more advanced method known as the next generation sequencing. FISH is a technique used to stain chromosome in order to detect areas where genes may have been deleted, duplicated or broken. The fluorescence label attached to a specific DNA sequences and allow the damaged genes to be seen when examining under a microscope. Cytogenetics is useful as it can observed the look of breast cancer. The anatomical pathology is able to diagnose the kind of breast cancer a patient might have, how far has it progressed, whether it may become an aggressive tumour or not, and also if it may respond to targeted therapy. Cytogenetics can add more information by identifying whether the patients’ faulty gene predispose them to development of breast cancer. If

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