RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Percentage yield
Fresh leaves of C. nardus with 1 kg portion yielded about 22.57g of aqueous crude extract, which was approximately about 2.26% of yield. The result showed that fresh leaves had a higher percentage yield compared to the air-dried leaves, it was only 1.3% yield which conducted by Koba et al. (2009) with the similar extraction technique. There were other factors that might affect the percentage yield, such as influence of the harvest place, harvest period, type of soil and climate.
4.2 Phytochemical analysis
4.2.1 Phytochemical compounds determination
Saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and Phenolic compounds were qualitatively analyzed. The summary of phytochemical analysis results of aqueous crude extracts of C. nardus leaves was tabulated in table 4.1.
Table 4.1. Phytochemical analysis results of aqueous crude extracts of C. nardus leaves
Phytoconstituents Appearances Results Before After
Saponins Foam Test
Positive. Formation of persistent foam.
Positive. Formation of yellow precipitate
Positive. Formation of creamy precipitate
Tannins Braymer’s Test
Positive. Formation of greenish colour solution.
Flavonoids…show more content… This reagent can be used to precipitate alkaloids due to the basic in nature of alkaloids. When a few drops of Hager’s reagent were added in the extract, a yellow precipitate was formed. Mayer’s reagent (Potassium-Mercuric Iodide) also can used to test the presence of alkaloids. Alkaloids were known to form salt with compounds of mercury. Mayer’s reagent reacts with lone pairs of nitrogen that present in alkaloids to form creamy precipitate, which known as mercury salt (El-Sakka 2010). When a few drops of Mayer’s reagent were added in the extract, a yellow precipitate was formed. The extract had shown a positive result in the presence of