Gender Roles

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Why are women not running for public office in larger numbers? The explanation is that women are simply less ambitious than men. Several studies have documented lower levels of ambition among women (Diamond 1977, Kirkpatrick 1976, Carroll 1985). Although the first congresswoman, Jeanette Rankin (R-MT), was elected in 1916, as late as 1970, only 10 women served in the United States Congress. In addition, up until the 1970s, nearly half of all congresswomen were only elected because of the deaths of their husbands (Gaddie and Bullock 2000). During that era, the number of women representation increased progressively up to 2007, where 16 women served in the US senate and 71 women served in the House of Representative. But however, today men makeup…show more content…
( Sen, Ostiln and George 2007) Gender is referred to the socially constructed difference between men and women. Over the past few year gender roles in society has changed since the start of the 21st century, and still continues to be one of the biggest social changes today. During this era the women’s place was in the private sphere being a mother, cooking cleaning and taking care of their husbands. Oppose to men that were considered to be in the public sphere working and providing. Gender related policies in different institutions has created an effect in the political process. The impact caused an influential impact on citizen’s interest, values and perception of politics (Kittilson…show more content…
Most scholars argue that the reason being is the lack of the capability they have to get the job done. But, “In fact, women perform as well as men when they do run for office. In terms of fundraising and vote totals, the consensus among researchers is the complete absence of overt gender bias. Based on a national study of voting patterns, for example, one group of political scientists concludes: “A candidate’s sex does not affect his or her chances of winning an election . . . Winning elections has nothing to do with the sex of the candidate” (Lawless and Fox. 2010) Although, this in fact is true ”when investigators take a more in-depth and nuanced look at voting, media coverage, campaigning, and fund-raising, they often find that women and men face different challenges” (e.g., Falk 2008; Lawless and Pearson 2008). In result of this, Women are substantially more likely than men to perceive the electoral environment as highly competitive and biased against female candidates. Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin’s candidacies aggravated women’s perceptions of gender bias in the electoral arena. Women are much less likely than men to think they are qualified to run for office. Female potential candidates are less competitive, less confident, and more risk averse than their male counterparts. Women react more negatively than men to many aspects of modern

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