Filtration Research Paper

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Problems with filtration Although filtration is a very important process in the purification of the fermentation product obtained, there are certain problems associated with it too. 1. The process of filtration is very slow and time consuming. 2. The process is relatively difficult to be performed. 3. Labor requirement is high. 4. It may result in the contamination of the product with the filter aid and equipment. So to counter that problem, we use other methods for the purification of our product. Some of these are explained as follows. Centrifugation Definition Centrifugation is the process of separation of molecules in a solution by spinning in devices called centrifuges. Principle of centrifugation This process separates the molecules…show more content…
Osmotic shock Osmotic shock is caused by a abrupt change in salt concentration. This will cause disruption of various types of cells. However, the effect on microbial cells is usually negligible. This is a limitation of this procedure. Enzyme treatment Lysozymes and enzyme extracts from leucocytes, Streptomyces spp., Micromonospora spp. Penicillium spp., Trichoderma spp., and snails cause hydrolysis of specific bonds present in the cell walls of microbes. But this process is very expensive. The downstream process can also become very complicated because the enzymes used and the enzymes isolated have to be distinguished and separated from each other. Chromatography Separation of molecules between two phases (stationary and mobile phase) is called chromatography. Types of chromatography There are a variety of types of chromatography. Only few among them will be discussed here. 1. Adsorption chromatography 2. Ion-exchange chromatography 3. Gel permeation chromatography 4. Affinity chromatography 5. Reverse phase chromatography 6. High performance liquid…show more content…
This technique is also known as gel exclusion and/or gel filtration. The figure below shows the basic principle of Gel permeation chromatography. Affinity chromatography This is another type of chromatography which involves separation on the basis of chemical structure. These types of interactions can occur between • enzyme-substrate • enzyme-inhibitor • antigen-antibody The figure below is a diagrammatic representation of affinity chromatography procedure. Reverse phase chromatography This process involves the separation of proteins on the basis of their hydrophobicity. More hydrophobic proteins form a stronger bond and the lesser hydrophobic proteins form a weaker bond with the stationary phase. Stationary phases are the solid phases like silica, etc. The following figure shows reverse phase chromatography process. High performance liquid chromatography High performance liquid chromatography is a high resolution column chromatography technique. Solvents are passed through silica based packed gels, in the stationary phase. Stationary phase should have a large surface area, large size and shape, and resistance against mechanical and chemical

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