Enzyme Literature Review

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Chapter:1 Introduction & Review of Literature 1.1 Enzyme Enzymes are biological catalysts,chemical reactions.Enzyme may act are called substrates and molecules called enzyme converts these into different products. Enzyme are utilized commercially ,for example, synthesis of antibiotics. The study of enzyme is called enzymology. French chemist Anselme payen was the first to discover an enzyme,diastase,in 1833.The first used of term enzyme German physiologist in 1877.An enzyme found in tears,saliva,and egg whites that digests the coating of some bacteria.viruses…show more content…
Microorganism produce lignolytic enzyme which consists of two major families of enzyme :peroxidase and Laccases.They have the ability to degrade the lignin. MnP and Lac enzyme were separated by ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme involved lignolytic systems are non specific, non stereoselectiv and effective against a broad spectrum of aromatic compound. Lignolytic enzyme (Lip,MnP and Laccase) are reported to be involved in guaiacol oxidation. The oxidation of phenol red is most commonly used to mesure the manganese peroxidase activity. MnP type peroxidase was absent sinces it could not oxidize phenol red a standerd substance for MnP. Manganase peroxidase was discovered in culture of phanerochaete Chrysoporium. The enzyme resembls lignin peroxidase. The catalytic cycles of manganese peroxidase resembls that of lignin peroxidase. Manganase peroxidase is expressed in multiple form with molecular weights from 40 to 68 kDa. MnP is unique its ability to degrade aromatic substance including lignin, directily to carbon dioxdase (CO2) this process called the enzymatic combustion. 1.3 Application of manganese…show more content…
MnP is the most common lignin modifying peroxidase. MnP preterentially oxidizes manganese () ions (Mn2+), always presents in wood and soils,into hightly reactive Mn3+. Lignin was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A.P. Candolle . MnP is capble of oxidizing & depolymerizing natural and synthetics lignins as well as entire lignocelluloses in cell-free systems (in vitro). 1.8 Structure of lignin Lignin is across-linked racemic macromolecule with molecular masses in of 10,000 u.it is relatively hydrophobic and aromatic nature. Different types of lignin described depending on the means of isolation. The three common monolignols (1) paracoumaryl alcohol (2) Coniferyl alcohol (3) Sinapyl alcohol. Lignin physically surrounded and protect the carbohydrate polymer from enzymatic hydrolysis and is the most recalcitrant. 1.9 Guaiacol Guaiacol is a organic compound with the formula C6 H4(OH)(OCH3). Guaiacol is first isolated by Otto unverdorben in 1826. It is biosynthesized by a variety of organism, this yellowish aromatic oily is derived f to from guaicum or wood creosote. Guaiacol is present in wood smoke, resulting from the pyrolysis of lignin. The compound contributes to the flavor of many compound, e.g rosted

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