Proton Pump Inhibitors Case Study

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This chapter begins by providing a brief overview of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI), its clinical use, mechanism of action, side effects and complication (acute and chronic changes) before giving context to the burden of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), presentation of incidence and prevalence data, with details pertaining to international variation in incidence and changes in incidence over time. The aim of presenting this information is to provide sufficient background for understanding the review that follows of the risk of Acute Kidney Injury complications. A description of the acute and chronic complications associated with Acute Kidney Injury is given, in addition to key insights gained from the prominent studies that preceded this thesis. The many challenges in interpreting the…show more content…
Mechanism of Action of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Proton pump inhibitors act by irreversibly blocking the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme system (the H+/K+ ATPase, or, more commonly, the gastric proton pump) of the gastric parietal cells.23. The proton pump is the terminal stage in gastric acid secretion, being directly responsible for secreting H+ ions into the gastric lumen, making it an ideal target for inhibiting acid secretion. Targeting the terminal step in acid production, as well as the irreversible nature of the inhibition, results in a class of drugs that are significantly more effective than H2 antagonists and reduce gastric acid secretion significantly. Decreasing the acid in the stomach can aid the healing of duodenal ulcers and reduce the pain from indigestion and heartburn. Acid is necessary for the formation of most ulcers in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, and the reduction of acid with PPIs prevents ulcers and allows any ulcers that exist in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to heal. However, stomach acids are needed to digest proteins, vitamin B12, calcium, and other nutrients, and too little stomach acid causes the condition

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