Ectomycorrhizae Case Study

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Introduction to Ectomycorrhizae Root of an Ectomycorrhizae is characterized by the presence of three structural components: A. Sheath or mantle: mantle is a sheath fungal tissues which wrap or encloses the root B. Hartig net: a labyrinthine inward growth of hyphae between the epidermal and cortical cells. C. Extraradical or External mycelium: an outwardly growing system of hyphal elements which form essential connections both with the soil and with the sporocarp of the fungi forming the ECM. All the plants which have ability to form ectomycorrhizal association with fungi are woody perennials. They are usually found on tree species although a few herbaceous and shrub species may also grow this association. Considerable attention…show more content…
They are Salix babylonica, Abies pindrow, Pinus wallichiana. These host are represent here because its large vegetation in northern areas of Pakistan. Salix babylonica 1. Genea hispidula: it belongs to Division Ascomycota and belongs to genus Genea. Morphology of ECM system: The length of system lies between 0-5 mm and monopodial pyramidal type of ramification is present in Genea hispidula. Rhizomorphs are not presnt, emanating hyphae are infrequently present but not specifically distributed. The shape of unramified ends is cylindrical and straight. Their colour is brown and no cortical cells appear in mantle. In general mantle surface is covered with soil particles or not smooth. In detail mantle surface is densely grainy or warty. Sclerotia are absent. Anatomy of ECM system: Outer mantle; Pseudoparenchymatous type of mantle present in ECM. The cells are angular type. Inner mantle; plectenchymatous disorganized mantle present. Hartig net present. Piceirhiza obscura : It belongs to Division…show more content…
Flesh: White; not staining on exposure. Spore Print: Olive brown. Helvella elastica Cap: 1-6 cm across; loosely and shallowly saddle-shaped, loosely convex, or irregular, with convex lobes that sometimes fuse by maturity; upper surface bald, tan to brown or grayish brown; undersurface whitish to pale brownish, bald, only rarely ingrown with stem where contact occurs; the young margin folding downward, towards the stem, rather than curling upwards. .Stipe: 2-11 cm long; to about 1 cm thick; more or less equal; cream colored; bald; hollow. Microscopic Features: Spores 18-24 x 11.5-15 µ; elliptical; smooth; usually with one central oil droplet and up to 5 small droplets at each end. Paraphyses hyaline to pale brownish (especially in a water mount); with granular contents; apices clavate to subcapitate, 5-11 µ wide Boletus

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