Country Image In Literature

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According to Jaffe and Nebenzahl (1984), Han and Terpstra (1988), Roth and Romeo (1992), Smith (1993), Papadopoulos and Heslop (2002), Jaffe and Nebenzahl (2006), despite several differences of approaches in the literature, each country has a certain image and a multifaceted structure. First studies on country image in the literature belong to the 1930s and 1940s (Katz and Braly, 1933; Klingberg, 1941). On those years, several researches were done on impacts of social psychological processes, economic, cultural and political events on country image. But in these years, national perceptions and prototypes are of particular importance (Katz and Braly, 1933; 1943; Klinberg,1941). Nagashima (1970) considers country image a prototypes that are…show more content…
This image might be personal but it may also occur as a form of thought that is specific to whole nation (Nagashima, 1970). Bannister and Saunders (1978) also adopt this point of view and define country image as a sum of a country’s economic and political development, historical traditions, industrialization, foreign affairs and technological developments. Desborde (1990) claims that country image reflects a country’s culture, political structure, economic level and technological development. According to Kotler and Gartner (2002) each country is made up with its own geography, history, law, art and music, famous cities and other features (Kotler and Gertner, 2002). In addition country image affects a country’s direct foreign investment (Kotler and Gertner, 2002), national tourism revenue (Chon, 1990), attractiveness of domestic markets (Papadopoulos, 2004), education system (Gertner, 2010; Srikatanyoo and Gnoth, 2002), political situation in foreign relations (Gilboa, 2008; Leonard et. al., 2002; Sun, 2008). Moreover country image, through products and services, influences quality perceptions of customers (Han and Terpstra, 1988; Jaffe and Nebenzahl, 2001; Papadopoulos and Heslop,

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