Corruption In Society

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largely to the extent that it advances our theoretical understanding of corruption (Gerring 1999). In short, recognizing different forms of corruption, leads to a series of questions such as: to what extent do the various types of corruption actually go together? Do all forms of corruption stem from the same underlying causes or are the different types of corruption caused by different factors? Do the different forms of corruption have different affects on society or the political system? Much of the corruption literature exploring the underlying causes and consequences of corruption fail to differentiate forms of corruption. Corruption, in other words, is treated generically as a singular class of political behavior. This is especially true…show more content…
Indeed, formal models show that corrupt activity generally depends on how much corrupt activity is taking place throughout society, suggesting a common pattern (Bardhan 2006, Mishra 2006). Such an assertion that leads to grouping different forms of corruption together not only justifies the use of crude, composite measures of the phenomenon but it also sustains the search for a common set of causal factors and unified or one-dimensional consequences. On the other hand, a wide range of theories has suggested that different forms of corruption may not necessarily go together and that certain factors may relate only to certain types of corruption and not others. Mocan (2004) and Morris (2008), for instance, find weak and limited correlations linking perceptions of corruption from actual involvement in paying bribes or being asked to pay a bribe, particularly among developing…show more content…
In the consequences for the political system, and hence on the approaches needed to curb corruption. In a comparison of corruption in Latin America, Daniel Gingerich (2009) similarly links different types of proportional representation electoral systems to distinct classes of corruption. The open-list, proportional Representation (PR) system found in Brazil tends to create strong incentives for legislators to amass a personal following by distributing pork and private goods to supporters back home via, in part, corruption. But while the open-list PR system in Brazil feeds individual schemes of corruption to pay for expensive personal election campaigns, the closed-list PR system CESifo DICE Report 2/2011 12 Forum 13 CESifo DICE Report 2/2011 Forum found in Argentina and Bolivia fosters a different pattern of corruption, where the power of the party elite, coupled with a more politicized bureaucracy, pushes party leaders to strike deals with bureaucrats and channel public resources to help the

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