Corruption In Literature Analysis

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respond to complexity. Actually, literature is not unanimous in defining the role played by corporation in corruption. On the opposite, two contradictory discourses may be distinguished. Fundamentally framed on a political reasoning, part of the literature presents corporation as a powerful, predatory and self-interested agent (Cf. Beets, 2005; Rodriguez et al, 2005), who has been contributing to illegal activities by active adaptation mechanisms, like pressuring government officials or encouraging and facilitating corrupt behavior of bureaucrats (Daboud et al, 1995, Needleman and Needleman, 1979). These discussions let us understand corruption as an opportunity and a source of profit for firms. Other discourses (Cf. Boycko, Shleifer and Vishny,…show more content…
However, a comprehensive survey about the role of corporations on corruption is still lacking in a growing literature centered on separate aspects of corruption rather than on an inclusive treatment of the subject as a whole. In our opinion, the confusion that surrounds the topic is another side effect of corruption’s complexity. The study of corruption cannot be neatly pigeon-holed in terms of a particular academic discipline, and this brief analysis draws on the work of anthropologists, criminologists, economists, historians, lawyers, political scientists and sociologist. The topic is now widely discussed and affects so many people that it would be a serious mistake to consider the work only of academics; the important contributions of practitioners in international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and elsewhere are also considered here. The Cyclic Nature of…show more content…
It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity. Specific acts of corruption include “bribery, extortion, and embezzlement” in a system where corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception. Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet states both types occur. Some scholars argue that there is a negative duty of western governments to protect against systematic corruption of underdeveloped governments. The government

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