Cardiovascular Disease Literature Review

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Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death and the most common disease worldwide. The aim of this review is to find the effectiveness of clinical pharmacist interventions with in the secondary prevention of CHD, using studies conducted on patients with heart failure and coronary heart disease. The study is based on electronic search results. Studies included were reported direct care from a clinical pharmacist in CHD or CHD-related therapeutic areas in collaboration with other health care workers with the following outcomes: CHD control or mortality, CHD risk factor control, patient-related outcomes (knowledge, adherence, or quality of life), and cost related to health care systems. The 2 studies says by providing…show more content…
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) said CHD as “a narrowing of the coronary arteries results in deposition of atherosclerotic plaque, which leads to an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. It is caused by structural or functional abnormalities of the heart. The literatures of past decade shows that secondary prevention include life style changes. Simultaneous use of multiple medication, risk of adverse effects, difficult to follow instructions, incorrect administrations of drugs (non adherence) are the major risk of continuously increasing life expectancy. The traditional method of prescribing and dispensing has proved insufficient to prevent costly consequences from improper medication use.1 The adherence to guideline recommendations is relatively low, and the quality of care provided to patients is documented to be below the target level.2 The extent to which the patients follow the medical instruction is known as drug compliance. The term compliance implies only the responsible of patients for the medical treatment, but adherence reflects the physician–patients relations and includes the responsibilities of care giver, willingness to take prescribed medication correctly throughout the therapy. Thus adherence replaces the term…show more content…
The presence of a clinical pharmacist can help to decrease these problems and optimize patient therapy so as to achieve greater benefits.3 The European Society of Clinical Pharmacy defines the role of a clinical pharmacist as one that “develop[s] and promote[s] safe and appropriate drug use with the goal of optimizing patient care.”4 The American College of Clinical Pharmacy defines clinical pharmacy as a “health science discipline in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.”Clinical pharmacists may participate in such services as patient education, medicine management, or

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