Water India Limited Case Study

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GAIL(INDIA) LIMITED GAIL (INDIA) Limited is one of the largest state government owned natural Producing and pipeline distribution company which has its headquarter in New Delhi ,India. It has following business functionalities: Gas Production(Natural),liquid carbon and hydrogen products, liquefied petroleum gas transport ,petrochemicals production city gas distribution, exploring and making gas ,GAIL TELECOM and electricity generation. GAIL has been conferred with Maharatna status on 1st feb 2013, by government of India. Presently only six other government companies have been granted this status. HISTORY GAIL(INDIA) limited had its first operation started in August 1984 as central government companies(PSU) under the ministry of petroleum and…show more content…
2) Total internal reflection Total internal reflection is a phenomenon which occurs when a propagating wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflection occurs. This is particularly common as an optical phenomenon , where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of waves, such as electromagnetic waves in general or sound…show more content…
Disadvantage 1) Can be damaged by external users by hacking. TYPES OF SCADA SYSTEMS 1) Early or Monolithic SCADA systems The first SCADA systems held all operations in one, usually a mainframe, computer. There was little control exercised and most early SCADA functions were limited to monitoring sensors and flagging any operations which exceeded programmed alarm levels. These systems were all vendor-proprietary software and usually limited to a single plant or facility. Like the software ,SCADA hardware from one vendor was rarely usable in another vendor’s SCADA system. 2) Distributed SCADA systems Later SCADA systems became known as Distributed systems since they often shared control functions across multiple smaller(usually PC) computers connected by local area networks(LAN).Using LAN, these individual stations shared real time information and often performed small control tasks in addition to alerting operators of possible problems or tripped alarm levels. 3) Networked SCADA

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