Unit 3 Assignment 1 Data Network Analysis

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Data Networking Assignment No: 2 1. Applications which use peer-to-peer communications also employ client-server communications for the following reasons: • Access rights and additional security features can be defined at the installation time. • Backing up of data is easy and it can be recovered easily. While in peer-to-peer communication we have to back-up each and every device. • File management becomes easy as all the files are stored in a single location. • Changes can be made very easily as only the server needs to be updated. • The client-server connection is a one sided connection for every transmission, hence there are less number of changes…show more content…
If Google changes its IP address to and also changes it’s mapping in the DNS authoritative name server then the immediate reference to google will not be sent to 167.456.45.56. The reason for non-immediate transfer is DNS propagation time. DNS propagation time is the time taken to update the Master DNS record and spread throughout the world’s entire DNS infrastructure. The propagation delay could be due to TTL (Time to Live). It is the time period for which a server cache the information in DNS server. The shorter the TTL, more will be the propagation delay. Each ISP have their own time frame of how often they update their DNS cache. There is no single shared standard throughout…show more content…
Therefore time taken by the remaining packets (799 packets) to reach the destination = 799 x 5 msec = 3995 msecs Time taken by all packets to reach destination = 3995 + 15 = 4010 msecs = 4.01 secs It can be observed that the time taken by the packets after segmentation is lesser than time taken to send all at a time. The delay time has been reduced to 1/3rd of the original time after segmentation. d) Reasons to use message segmentations: 1. If a single bit message is transferred and there is an error in the message then whole message has to be transmitted once again 2. Segmented messages has to wait in queue if a single bit message is transmitted for it. e) 1. Every message segment has to have its own header regardless of their size. After message segmentation the total size of headers is more. 2. Packets have to be arranged in sequence at the destination which could be delayed due to network congestion. Practical Assignment 1. DNS Query DNS Response Message DNS Query and Response message both were sent using UDP

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