Triangle Model Research Paper

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The Dual-Route and Triangle Models of Reading for Phonological Dyslexia and Surface Dyslexia Dyslexia syndrome is an important topic in psychology. It is characterised by difficulty with learning to read and other deficits in performing some cognitive activities, such as word recognition, spelling, and phonological recoding, which translates groups of letters into phonological forms. Dyslexia can be innate or acquired after a stroke, brain damage, or atrophy. There are four forms of acquired dyslexia: surface dyslexia, semantic dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, and deep dyslexia. Reading is a highly complex task and requires some cognitive processes. Some computational models have been developed to explain the process of reading. These models…show more content…
Another model, the triangle model of reading, or distributed connectionist approach has been established by Seidenberg and McClelland (1989) and developed further by Plaut et al. (1996) (see Appendix B). This model is a connectionist networks that relates orthographic, semantic and phonological aspects of reading. The orthography system processes written words, the semantic system deals with comprehension and production when a semantic source of activation is needed, and finally the phonology system is required for speech production. Like the dual-route model, there are two routes in the triangle model: a direct route from orthography to phonology, used if we want to read non-words, and an indirect route from orthography to phonology via semantics, used only for reading real words aloud; it would fail for non-words reading, as non-words do not benefit from semantics. The direct route is less efficient for reading low-frequency words and inconsistent words as the model need to learn the atypical mappings of these kind of words. Processing their meaning is particularly important (Lambon Ralph & Patterson, 2005). Several specific version of the triangle model exists, in 2006, seven forms of this model have been published (Coltheart, 2006), however they all share the same idea that identical processes support word and non-word…show more content…
According to the phonological impairment hypothesis, the inability to read non-words is due to impairment in phonological processing (Nickels et al., 2008), rather than to grapheme-phoneme conversion as seen in the dual-route model. Some evidences have been found in support of this idea. Researchers demonstrated that a computational model like the triangle model could also simulate the patterns shown by phonological dyslexic patients (Harm & Seidenberg, 2001). They lesioned the phonological system by applying Gaussian noise to the computations performed within this system and used their results as evidence for the phonological impairment hypothesis. According to their study, all phonological dyslexic subjects have an impaired phonological system. However, cases have been studied where phonological abilities were not impaired and non-words reading was impaired. Patterson (2000) studied a phonological dyslexic patients and found that even though his phonological abilities in non-words reading were not normal, he failed reading non-words by 80% but succeeded performance in segmentation and blending by 80%, which suggest that his failure in reading non-words cannot only be explained by phonological impairment. Caccappolo-van Vliet, Miozzo & Stern (2004) also reported three cases of phonological

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