The Cardiovascular System: The Human Heart

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The cardiovascular system can be thought of as a huge pumping station for the blood we use in our bodies. The human heart weighs about 11oz. The heart can pump nearly 1.5 gallons of blood through the body per minute. This hollow organ is made up od four hollow chambers that fill up with blood and pump it though the body. These chambers are called the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles. The atria receive the blood from the major veins and the ventricles discharge the blood through the heart. The lining of the chamber walls is the myocardium. Each chamber wall is lined with a thin layer of fibrous smooth tissue called endocardium. The covering of around the heart is called the pericardium. The pericardium as two layers of…show more content…
The medical term for the heart sounds is called apical heartbeat. Its called apical beat because the stethoscope is placed at the apex of the heart. The heart is located in the thoracic cavity. It is nestled between the lungs and the mediastinum. Because of where the heart is located some can feel the heart with the palm of their hands if they apply pressure under the sternum. The heart delivers blood to our entire body. In order for the heart to pump efficiently it contracts and relaxes in intervals to allow the blood to be successfully pumped to all of the cells, organs and tissues. This is called systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic is the heart contracting and diastolic is the heart at rest. The heart pumps by electrical impulses from cardiac muscle fibers. There are four sources for the heartbeat, they include the Sinoatrial node also known as the pacemaker, the Atrioventricular Node, bundle of His, and purkinje fibers. The impulses start at the SA node then spreads through the heart repeatedly. When listen to through a stethoscope the hearts make a “lub” “dub” sound. These sounds are created by the AV valves and Semilunar valves opening and…show more content…
Angina pectoris (chest pain) is often a warning sign before an acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction occurs after a period of cardiac ischemia. Risk factors for a heart attack includes male gender, postmenopausal women, nicotine, and stress. Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle is unable to pump effectively, which results in inadequate cardiac output. Risk factors include HTN, septicemia, genetic predisposition, and anemia. Medications associate with the cardiovascular system includes diuretics, which decrease the pre and after load affects, morphine for severe pain, and Lopressor which decreases dysrhythmias and blood pressure, in turn decreasing tachycardia. Diagnostic procedures and tests associated with the cardiovascular system includes Troponin levels and other cardiac enzymes released into the bloodstream when the heart muscle suffers from ischemia. Lipid profile provides information regarding cholesterol levels and used often for the early detection of heart associated problems. An Echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart including sound waves, used to aide in diagnosing volvuli dysfunction and

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