Sepsis Case Studies

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Sepsis is one of the major causes of mortality in the developed countries, resulting in substantial costs to the health economy (Dellinger, et al., 2013). Among various acute conditions presented to hospitals universally, sepsis is almost unique, as it can affect any age group and present in any clinical area, regardless of the health sector. Prevalence of sepsis varies internationally, but is estimated to be about 300 cases per 100,000 populations, per annum, globally (Hall, Williams, DeFrances & Golosinskiy, 2011). The Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC, 2012) data reported that 102,000 cases of sepsis arise annually, In the United Kingdom, with 36,800 deaths as a result, which carries a 35% mortality. NHS England (2014)…show more content…
Typical triggers of sepsis include urinary tract infections, pneumonia and cellulitis. Sepsis is present when a patient has a definite, or presumed infection, plus the SIRS criteria (Daniels & Nutbeam, 2009). Evidence suggests increasing age is a factor in the increasing incidence of sepsis, but other factors are known to be contributory to this increasing incidence. These factors include increasing use of high-risk interventions in all age groups, inappropriate use of antibiotics, leading to an increase in the development of multi-drug resistant organisms and the emergence of more virulent varieties of microbes (McPherson, et al.,…show more content…
With continual innovations in sepsis care, the SSC guidelines were updated in 2008 and again in 2012. The SSC guidelines identified that early recognition and implementation of ‘Sepsis Six’ (Table 1) are vital steps both diagnostic and treatment interventions, to ensure better outcomes in the context of sepsis. ‘Sepsis Six’ addresses workup of infection, initiation of antibiotics, source control and organ damage control (Dellinger, et al., 2013). SSC guidelines represent an important advance in the management of patients with severe sepsis (NHS England, 2014). However, for the guidance to be effective familiarity with the principles of ‘Sepsis Six’ is crucial for all doctors and nurses working in health care settings where patients with severe sepsis commonly present and deteriorate (Robson & Daniels, 2008). In the absence of good awareness among health professionals, which would provoke suspicion of sepsis in any patient who looks unwell, opportunities to assess, identify, and manage will continue to be missed (Daniels, 2015) until improved awareness can be

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