Oral Health Case Study

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Oral health is said to be the well-being of the oral cavity. It refers to the overall good health of dentine, its supporting structure-the tissues and absence of disease and the optimal functioning of mouth (W.H.O, 1994). Thus, oral health is an integral constituent of general health (Watt, 2005). Good oral health enable individuals to communicate effectively, to have a variety of food items to enjoy and increases the general quality of life giving social confidence (Locker, 1988). Oral health problems negatively affect quality of human life, keeping this issue in context, maintaining the most desirable levels of oral health and function for healthy lifestyle is the goal for now as well as for the longer term. There have always been immense…show more content…
It is the localized destruction of susceptible dental hard tissues (Fontana et al., 2010). The incidence rate of disease vary between populations (Scannapieco, 2013). It starts with the shift of commensal oral microbiota, with in the complex biofilms, dominated by cariogenic microorganisms. The overall microbiology of dental caries is well characterized. In general it is considered as a polymicrobial disease as carious lesions are known to contain a range of Streptococcal spp., Lactobacilli, Actinomyetes, Prevotellae spp and occasionally candida yeasts, all of which are acid tolerant organisms (Chhour et al., 2005). Major advances for characterization were done during the 1960s and 1970s. At that time a specific group of bacteria, the cariogenic streptococci, was found in high numbers in carious leions and was described by Orland et al. as to be able to induce dental caries in animal models resembling humans (Tanzer et al., 2001). During this era, the importance of Streptococcus mutans and related organisms, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus cricetus, Streptococcus downeii, Streptococcus rattus and Streptococcus macacae in etiology of dental caries was established (Scannapieco, 2013). Briefly, among the mutans streptococci, S. mutans is often found in elevated levels in plaque, produce abundant acid from dietary sucrose that promotes the biofilm formation and retards diffusion of acid from the tooth-plaque interface to derive tooth demineralization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that these species are the most cariogenic organisms in animal fed sucrose (Kleinberg,

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