Optimism In Psychology

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Hope. It is "a positive motivational state that is based on an interactively derived sense of successful (1) agency (goal-directed energy) and (2) pathways (planning to meet goals)" (p. 287) was define by Snyder, Irving, and Anderson (1991). Like self-efficacy, an individual's self-initiated, goal-directed motivations and behaviors are what hope capitalizes on. On the other hand, a different set of mechanisms through which goals are accomplished was also what hope focuses on. These elements of hope are the sense of internalized control or agency that makes the motivation and determination to achieve one's goals. The process through which contingency plans and alternative pathways are adapted and created to achieve overcome obstacles and goals…show more content…
The recognized pioneer of the positive optimism, psychology movement can be viewed as an attributional style that explains positive events through permanent, personal, and negative events and pervasive causes through temporary, situation-specific, and external ones are the work of Martin Seligman what optimism most often associated with. Conversely, positive events and attributes them to situation-specific and temporary causes while affecting negative events and attributing then to pervasive and permanent ones are externalized by pessimism (C. Peterson & Steen, 2002). Optimists build positive expectations that motivate their approach and goal pursuit coping behavior in the future, whereas pessimists are hindered by negative expectancies and self-doubt are the result of these attributional or explanatory style differences (Carver & Scheier, 2002). Like hope and self-efficacy, optimism is motivated, developed, and created in relation to the search of individually valuable goals. The self, others, or external factors are the sources of an optimist's positive expectancies that promote a favorable view of the future may be. In the same way, externalizing and distancing himself or herself from failures is what an optimist's interpretation of negative events primarily relies on. Furthermore, in contrast to self-efficacy, which is domain specific, optimism uses generalized attributions, and in contrast to hope, optimism does not reckon for the pathways make and used for goal completion (Luthans & Jensen, 2002). Moreover, although hope and self-efficacy are mostly reasoning in nature, optimism joins emotional, motivational, and cognitive components (C. Peterson, 2000; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). In conclusion, through several empirical studies, the discriminant validity of self-efficacy, hope, and optimism has been supported (Carifio & Rhodes, 2002; Bryant & Cvengros, 2004). A broad range of positive outcomes, including psychological and physical health,

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